Photographs, Paintings or Drawings

    Medieval Carpenters Axe
    Title: Medieval Carpenters Axe
    Creator: Kirsten Christiansen, Joan F. Davidson, Niels Knud Liebgott, Anne-Marie Lindgren eds.
    Archive or Repository: "Margrete I, Regent of the North. The Kalamar Union 600 years. "
    Collection or Fond: Essays and Catalogue. Coepnhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers and the National Museum
    Reference Number: page 322, # 108
    Notes: Length 30.7cm, Width 19.5cm

    Large | Larger
    Axeheads lost in the Batlle on the Grathe Moors Denmark 23 Oct. 1157
    Title: Axeheads lost in the Batlle on the Grathe Moors Denmark 23 Oct. 1157
    Creator: Niels-Knud Liebgott
    Archive or Repository: "Middelalderen, "vol.3: "Broderstrid og Kulturliv (The Middle Ages- War between Brothers and Cultural Situation)
    Collection or Fond: Copenhagen

    Large | Larger
    Gränsfors axes 4- lumber axes, 19th century
    Title: Gränsfors axes 4- lumber axes, 19th century
    Creator: Rob Ferguson
    Archive or Repository: Personal Collection

    Large | Larger
    Gränsfors axes 7, 19th century
    Title: Gränsfors axes 7, 19th century
    Creator: Rob Ferguson
    Archive or Repository: In Gränsfors Bruk Museum, Hälsingland, Sweden
    Collection or Fond: Personal Collection

    Large | Larger
    Gränsfors axes 6, 19th century
    Title: Gränsfors axes 6, 19th century
    Creator: Rob Ferguson
    Archive or Repository: In Gränsfors Bruk Museum, Hälsingland, Sweden
    Collection or Fond: Personal Collection

    Large | Larger
    Gränsfors axe 9, 19th century
    Title: Gränsfors axe 9, 19th century
    Creator: Rob Ferguson
    Archive or Repository: In Gränsfors Bruk Museum, Hälsingland, Sweden
    Collection or Fond: Personal Collection

    Large | Larger
    Gränsfors axes 10, 19th century
    Title: Gränsfors axes 10, 19th century
    Creator: Rob Ferguson
    Archive or Repository: In Gränsfors Bruk Museum, Hälsingland, Sweden
    Collection or Fond: Personal Collection

    Large | Larger
    Gränsfors axes 14, 19th century
    Title: Gränsfors axes 14, 19th century
    Creator: Rob Ferguson
    Archive or Repository: In Gränsfors Bruk Museum, Hälsingland, Sweden
    Collection or Fond: Personal Collection

    Large | Larger
    Axeheads from Nœsholm, Denmark late 13th century
    Title: Axeheads from Nœsholm, Denmark late 13th century
    Creator: Vilhelm La Cour
    Archive or Repository: "Nœsholm"
    Collection or Fond: Copenhagen: The National Museum.
    Reference Number: page 185

    Large | Larger
    Axehead, Whaling axe? Burr's Hill mid-17th century
    Title: Axehead, Whaling axe? Burr's Hill mid-17th century
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation
    Reference Number: #8/5123

    Large | Larger
    Axehead, mid- 17th century, Fort Saint-Pierre, Cape Breton, N.S.
    Title: Axehead, mid- 17th century, Fort Saint-Pierre, Cape Breton, N.S.
    Creator: Derek Harrison
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada
    Reference Number: # 18B-358T

    Large | Larger
    19th century axe, Simon Perkin's House, Liverpool, N.S.
    Title: 19th century axe, Simon Perkin's House, Liverpool, N.S.
    Creator: B. Wallace

    Large | Larger
    Hegranes thing buð
    Title: Hegranes thing buð
    Creator: Birgitta Wallace
    Collection or Fond: Personal Collection
    Notes: The building appears as a slight depression surrounded by low ridges

    Large | Larger
    Photo turret
    Title: Photo turret
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: Personal collection
    Notes: Camera can be raised 16m

    Large | Larger
    Reconstructed Viking Age shoe from Haithabu
    Title: Reconstructed Viking Age shoe from Haithabu
    Creator: Dubbott
    Archive or Repository: Schleswig Museum
    Notes: There were several types of shoes and boots. This was one of the most common models.

    Large | Larger
    A page from Flat Island Book
    Title: A page from Flat Island Book
    Creator: Rafn Plate 2

    Large | Larger
    Map made by Hans Poulson Resen, 1605
    Title: Map made by Hans Poulson Resen, 1605
    Creator: Hans Poulson Resen
    Archive or Repository: Manuscript Department, Royal Library Copenhagen
    Notes: Anonymous map added to by Hans Resen completed in 1605 in preparation for a Danish expedition to Greenland. Texts in Latin mentioned 15th and 16th century explorations. At the bottom of the map is Nova Scotia with Cape Breton. North of there is the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Newfoundland is attached to the mainland. Northern Newfoundland is marked [[underline]]Promontorium Vinlandia bone forte Vinlandia pucræ [[/]] (The promontory of Vinland the very good and beautiful).

    Large | Larger
    Engraving of Dighton Rock, Sent to Rafn 1830
    Title: Engraving of Dighton Rock, Sent to Rafn 1830
    Creator: Carl Christian Rafn
    Archive or Repository: Antiquitates Americanæ
    Reference Number: Figure X

    Large | Larger
    Drawings of Dighton Rock, sent to Rafn 1830
    Title: Drawings of Dighton Rock, sent to Rafn 1830
    Creator: Carl Christian Rafn
    Archive or Repository: Antiquitates Americanæ
    Reference Number: Figure XI

    Large | Larger
    Hauk's Book beginning
    Title: Hauk's Book beginning
    Creator: Carl Christian Rafn
    Archive or Repository: ANTIQUITATES AMERICANAE SIVE SCRIPTORES SEPTENTRIONALES RERUM ANTE-COLUMBIANARUM IN AMERICA. Hafniae [Copenhagen]
    Notes: The beginning of Hauk's Book.

    Large | Larger
    A page from Flat Island Book
    Title: A page from Flat Island Book
    Creator: Carl Christian Rafn
    Archive or Repository: ANTIQUITATES AMERICANAE SIVE SCRIPTORES SEPTENTRIONALES RERUM ANTE-COLUMBIANARUM IN AMERICA. Hafniae [Copenhagen]

    Large | Larger
    Air Photo 17543-55
    Title: Air Photo 17543-55
    Creator: Geological Survey of Canada
    Notes: By printing these photos and placing one partially over the other, you should have a stereoscopic view of the site. A stereoscoptic viewer is necessary.

    Large | Larger
    Air Photo 17543-56
    Title: Air Photo 17543-56
    Creator: Geological Survey of Canada
    Notes: By printing these photos and placing one partially over the other, you should have a stereoscopic view of the site. A stereoscoptic viewer is necessary.

    Large | Larger
    Overhead photo of Swedish burial 2
    Title: Overhead photo of Swedish burial 2
    Creator: E. Nylén and B. Schönbäck
    Archive or Repository: Erik Nylén and Björn Ambrosiani, "A Turret for Vertical Photography"

    Large | Larger
    Overhead photo of Swedish burial 3
    Title: Overhead photo of Swedish burial 3
    Creator: E. Nylén and B. Schönbäck
    Archive or Repository: Erik Nylén and Björn Ambrosiani, "A Turret for Vertical Photography"
    Reference Number: page 53

    Large | Larger
    Rafn's Vinland
    Title: Rafn's Vinland
    Creator: Carl Christian Rafn
    Archive or Repository: Antiquitates Americanæ
    Reference Number: Fig. XVII (17)

    Large | Larger
    Catherwood's Drawing of Newport Tower, 1838
    Title: Catherwood's Drawing of Newport Tower, 1838
    Creator: Frederick Catherwood
    Archive or Repository: Royal Danish Library, Copenhagen
    Collection or Fond: Manuscript Department
    Reference Number: NKS 1599-2º -7, no.1
    Notes: This is the drawing sent by the Massachusetts Historical Society to Carl Christian Rafn in Copenhagen. The drawing makes the tower look much bigger and more carefully built than it actually is.

    Large | Larger
    Eastman's 1856 drawing of the Newport Tower
    Title: Eastman's 1856 drawing of the Newport Tower
    Creator: Captain Seth Eastman
    Notes: Henry R. Schoolcraft considered Catherwood's drawing misleading and commissioned Captain Seth Eastman to make a new, more correct representation. It was published as Plate XV (15) in Volume I of his monumental work "Historical and statistical information respecting the history, condition, and prospects of the Indian tribes of the United States; collected and prepared under the direction of the Bureau of Indian Affairs per act of Congress of March 3rd, 1847".

    Large | Larger
    Flateyarbók
    Title: Flateyarbók
    Creator: Arthur Middleton Reeves
    Archive or Repository: Finding of Wineland the Good

    Large | Larger
    Map of the World as envisioned in the 11th century
    Title: Map of the World as envisioned in the 11th century
    Creator: Axel Anton Bjørnbo
    Archive or Repository: "Adam of Bremen's Nordensopfattelse," Aarbøger for nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie, ["Adam of Bremen's Concept of the North," Journal of Scandinavian Antiquities and History,
    Reference Number: volume 24: 120-224
    Notes: The world as Adam of Bremen imagined it. Reconstruction by the Danish geographer A.A. Bjørnbo 1909.

    Large | Larger
    Maria Klagan (The Wailing of Mary), ms. Royal Library, Stockholm.
    Title: Maria Klagan (The Wailing of Mary), ms. Royal Library, Stockholm.
    Creator: Unknown
    Editor: Henrick Schück and Karl Warburg
    Pages: 123
    Notes: 14th century poem in Old Danish written with 14th century runes.

    Large | Larger
    Vikings in long baggy pants on picture stone from När, Smiss, Gotland, Sweden.
    Title: Vikings in long baggy pants on picture stone from När, Smiss, Gotland, Sweden.
    Creator: Sune Lindqvist
    Archive or Repository: 'Gotlands Bildsteine' vol. 1. Wahlström & Widstrand, Stockholm
    Collection or Fond: Plate 61, Figure 142

    Large | Larger
    Men dressed in tight-fitting hose and long shirts on picture stone from Etelhem. Järnvägslinjen, Gotland, Sweden.
    Title: Men dressed in tight-fitting hose and long shirts on picture stone from Etelhem. Järnvägslinjen, Gotland, Sweden.
    Creator: Sune Lindqvist
    Archive or Repository: Gotlands Bildsteine, vol. 1, Wahlström & Widstarnd, Stockholm
    Collection or Fond: Plate 20, Figure 62

    Large | Larger
    Religious rites depicted on stone from Lärbro, Stora Hammars, Gotland, Sweden.
    Title: Religious rites depicted on stone from Lärbro, Stora Hammars, Gotland, Sweden.
    Creator: Sune Lindqvist
    Archive or Repository: Gotlands Bildsteine, vol. 1. Wahlström & Widstrand, Stockholm.
    Collection or Fond: Plate 27, Figure 81

    Large | Larger
    Statuette of the god Thor, Eyrarland, Iceland.
    Title: Statuette of the god Thor, Eyrarland, Iceland.
    Creator: Þjóðminjasafn Íslands
    Archive or Repository: National Museum of Iceland, Reykjavik

    Large | Larger
    Remains of Viking Age burial No. 660 at Birka, Sweden
    Title: Remains of Viking Age burial No. 660 at Birka, Sweden
    Creator: After a field drawing by Hjalmar Stolpe
    Pages: Figure 189

    Large | Larger
    Remains of Viking Age burial No. 660 at Birka, Sweden
    Title: Remains of Viking Age burial No. 660 at Birka, Sweden
    Creator: Holger Arbman
    Archive or Repository: Birka, volume 1: Die Gräber.
    Notes: After a field drawing by Hjalmar Stolpe

    Large | Larger
    Remains of Viking Age burial No. 834 at Birka, Sweden
    Title: Remains of Viking Age burial No. 834 at Birka, Sweden
    Creator: Holger Arbman
    Archive or Repository: Birka, volume I: Die Gräber
    Notes: After field drawing by Hjalmar Stolpe

    Large | Larger
    Greek lion sculpture from c. 400 BC inscribed with runes by Vikings 1400 years later. Originally in the Greek port of Pireus, the lion was moved to Venice in 1687.
    Title: Greek lion sculpture from c. 400 BC inscribed with runes by Vikings 1400 years later. Originally in the Greek port of Pireus, the lion was moved to Venice in 1687.
    Creator: Gösta Lundquist
    Archive or Repository: Svenska Turistföreningen

    Large | Larger
    19th century runestone on Frösön, Jämtland, Sweden
    Title: 19th century runestone on Frösön, Jämtland, Sweden
    Creator: Erik Festin
    Notes: Runestone erected in 1835. The inscription says :On the 27th of August 1835 King Carl XIV Johan greet the soldiers of Jämtland here.”

    Large | Larger
    Bracteate DR BR 21, from Over-Hornbœk, Denmark.
    Title: Bracteate DR BR 21, from Over-Hornbœk, Denmark.
    Creator: Erik Moltke
    Notes: The runes are from Old Futhark, but the artist has not had proper knowledge of runes and has given some of them the wrong shape. A bracteate is a Germanic copy of a Roman coin meant to be worn on a chain.

    Large | Larger
    Newport Tower Photos, 1964
    Title: Newport Tower Photos, 1964
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Carnegie Museum of Natural History
    Collection or Fond: Anthropology Section photo collection

    Large | Larger
    Glaumbær, an estate mentioned in the Saga of the Greenlanders
    Title: Glaumbær, an estate mentioned in the Saga of the Greenlanders
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: Personal Collection

    Large | Larger
    Glaumbær Church
    Title: Glaumbær Church
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: Personal Collection
    Notes: Glaumbær, northern Iceland. According to the Saga of the Greenlanders Gudrid founded a convent here, but this may be a 13th-century editorial change.

    Large | Larger
    Gröf church
    Title: Gröf church
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: Personal Collection
    Notes: Gröf church in northern Iceland dates to the 17th century but is built in the same way as the 11th-century church at Brattahlid. Like the latter it is surrouned by a circular cemetery.

    Large | Larger
    Landscape near Reykjavik
    Title: Landscape near Reykjavik
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: Personal Collection
    Notes: Excellent pastures were available to the Norse colonists.

    Large | Larger
    Hófstaðir, remains of a chieftain's hall in northern Iceland
    Title: Hófstaðir, remains of a chieftain's hall in northern Iceland
    Creator: B. Wallce
    Collection or Fond: Personal Collection

    Large | Larger
    Icelandic forest in 1965
    Title: Icelandic forest in 1965
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: Personal Collection
    Notes: About 25 % of Iceland was forested when the Norse arrived. The trees were primarily birch. A couple of hundred years later most of the trees had been cut. Iceland became almost treeless with forests no bigger than these until recently when an extensive reforesting program was begun.

    Large | Larger
    Excavation of Hvítarholt 'longfire'
    Title: Excavation of Hvítarholt 'longfire'
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: Personal Collection

    Large | Larger
    Remains of þingbúð at Hegranes in northern Iceland
    Title: Remains of þingbúð at Hegranes in northern Iceland
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: B. Wallace Personal Collection

    Large | Larger
    Helge & Anne Stine
    Title: Helge & Anne Stine
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace Personal Collection
    Notes: Helge and Anne Stine Ingstad at their home in Oslo. In 1960 the Norwegian writer and explorer Helge Ingstad searched the coasts of Newfoundland's Northern Peninsula for evidence of the Norse. At L'Anse aux Meadows he was led to what the locals called the "old Indian camp" by George Decker, the descendant of the first settlers in the village. The place seemed so promising that Ingstad returned with a full-fledged archaeological expedition the next year. This expedition was led by his wife, Dr. Anne Stine Ingstad, a professional archaeologist.

    Large | Larger
    Reconstructed Mooring Pin
    Title: Reconstructed Mooring Pin
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Carnegie Museum of Natural History Anthropology Section
    Reference Number: 9752
    Notes: Reconstructed "mooring pin" in mooring hole stone from Lake Latoka, Minnesota moved to the Runestone Museum in Alexandria, Minnesota.

    Large | Larger
    Mooring Holes and Chisels
    Title: Mooring Holes and Chisels
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace Personal Collection
    Notes: The shapes of holes drilled in rocks with hand-held chisels differ according to the shape of the chisel.

    Large | Larger
    Mooring hole, Ten Mile Lake
    Title: Mooring hole, Ten Mile Lake
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Carnegie Museum of Natural History
    Collection or Fond: Anthropology Section
    Reference Number: 9745
    Notes: Mooring hole from Ten Mile Lake, Minnesota. It was this type of hole Pohl was looking for at Follins Pond.

    Large | Larger
    Blast Hole at Sinking Lake, Minnesota
    Title: Blast Hole at Sinking Lake, Minnesota
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Carnegie Museum of Natural History
    Collection or Fond: Anthropology Section
    Reference Number: 7256
    Notes: This type of holes, which have been blasted, occur frequently in the vicinity of mooring holes.

    Large | Larger
    Comic, Ten Mile lake Mooring Hole
    Title: Comic, Ten Mile lake Mooring Hole
    Creator: Unknown
    Archive or Repository: Lake Park Region Echo
    Notes: An artist's rendering of how a mooring hole was used.

    Large | Larger
    Presumed site of Leif's house
    Title: Presumed site of Leif's house
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Carnegie Museum of Natural History Anthropology Section
    Reference Number: 8036

    Large | Larger
    Presumed site of Leif's ship shoring place
    Title: Presumed site of Leif's ship shoring place
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Carnegie Museum of Natural History Anthropology Section
    Reference Number: 8938

    Large | Larger
    The Bass River
    Title: The Bass River
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Carnegie Museum of Natural History Anthropology Section
    Reference Number: 8924

    Large | Larger
    Presumed house site
    Title: Presumed house site
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Carnegie Museum of Natural History Anthropology Section
    Reference Number: 8025

    Large | Larger
    Another Presumed House Site
    Title: Another Presumed House Site
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Carnegie Museum of Natural History Anthropology Section
    Reference Number: 8027

    Large | Larger
    Presumed Site of Leif's House, from Distance
    Title: Presumed Site of Leif's House, from Distance
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Carnegie Museum of Natural History Anthropology Section
    Reference Number: 8033

    Large | Larger
    Model, A-B-C Complex
    Title: Model, A-B-C Complex
    Creator: Thomas Lackey
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada archaeology photo collection
    Reference Number: 4A-1853T
    Notes: Model of the A-B-C complex, facing northwest. The complex contains dwellings for three different social classes: a large hall for chieftain and his staff, a small house for some of his employees, and a small primitive hut, probably for slaves. Model by David Coldwell, on exhibit at L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site

    Large | Larger
    Mount Vernon Halberd
    Title: Mount Vernon Halberd
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Carnegie Museum Anthropology Section
    Reference Number: 7168
    Notes: Halberd found 1946 at Mount Vernon, SD, thought to have been lost by the expedition commemorated on the Kensington stone.

    Large | Larger
    Sunburg Axe
    Title: Sunburg Axe
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Carnegie Museum of Natural History
    Collection or Fond: Anthropology section
    Reference Number: 9780
    Notes: Axehead from Sunburg, Kandiyohi County, MN, thought to be associated with the Kensington stone inscription. Runestone Museum, Alexandria, MN

    Large | Larger
    Mora Axe
    Title: Mora Axe
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Carnegie Museum of Natural History
    Collection or Fond: Anthropology Section
    Reference Number: 9786
    Notes: Axehead found at Mora, Kanabec County, MN. Collection: Concordia College, Concordia, MN.

    Large | Larger
    Kensington Runestone, 1965
    Title: Kensington Runestone, 1965
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Carnegie Museum of Natural History
    Reference Number: 7535
    Notes: The Kensington runestone. The Runestone Museum, Alexandria, MN.

    Large | Larger
    Lake Darling Halberd
    Title: Lake Darling Halberd
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Carnegie Museum of Natural History
    Collection or Fond: Anthropology Section
    Reference Number: 9782
    Notes: Halberd thought to be Norse found at Lake Darling, MN, now in the Runestone Museum, Alexandria, MN.

    Large | Larger
    Erdahl Axe
    Title: Erdahl Axe
    Creator: O.G. Landsverk
    Notes: Axe found at Erdahl, Grant County, MN, reputed to have belonged to members of the 14th-century expedition commemorated in the Kensington stone inscription. Collection: Mr. Ted Field, Madison, WI

    Large | Larger
    Viking
    Title: Viking
    Creator: ATA, Stockholm
    Notes: 11-th century carving on a knife handle from Sigtuna, Sweden. Sigtuna Museum.

    Large | Larger
    Female
    Title: Female
    Creator: Statens Historiska Museum, Stockholm
    Notes: Viking Age amulet in the shape of a female from a Boat burial in Tuna, Alsike paruis, Uppland, Sweden.

    Large | Larger
    Longfire Hearth Excavation, 1965
    Title: Longfire Hearth Excavation, 1965
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: B. Wallace photo collection
    Notes: The hearth, 'longfire', typical of the Viking Age, in hall III at Hvítarholt in southern Iceland excavated 1962 to 1967.

    Large | Larger
    11th-century burials at Kopparsvik, Gotland, Sweden
    Title: 11th-century burials at Kopparsvik, Gotland, Sweden
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection
    Notes: Skeletal studies yield important date such as age, sex, diet, disease, and DNA information.

    Large | Larger
    Excavation of the walled village of Eketorp, Öland, Sweden
    Title: Excavation of the walled village of Eketorp, Öland, Sweden
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection

    Large | Larger
    The 'Ingvar' stone at Gripsholm, Mariefred, Sweden. About 25 runestones in Sweden comcmemorate men who died on Viking raids led by the Swede Ingvar in the Middle East.
    Title: The 'Ingvar' stone at Gripsholm, Mariefred, Sweden. About 25 runestones in Sweden comcmemorate men who died on Viking raids led by the Swede Ingvar in the Middle East.
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection

    Large | Larger
    Whetstone from Timans, Gotland, Sweden. The runic inscription lists places visited by  Vikings: Greece, Jerusalem, Iceland & the Middle East.
    Title: Whetstone from Timans, Gotland, Sweden. The runic inscription lists places visited by Vikings: Greece, Jerusalem, Iceland & the Middle East.
    Creator: Gotlands Fornsal
    Archive or Repository: Gotlands Fornsal, Visby, Sweden

    Large | Larger
    Swedish silver hoard with jewellery and Arabic coins obtained via trade or raids. Found at Eskiltuna, Sweden.
    Title: Swedish silver hoard with jewellery and Arabic coins obtained via trade or raids. Found at Eskiltuna, Sweden.
    Creator: ATA
    Archive or Repository: Antikvariska-topografiska arkivet, Stockholm
    Reference Number: 1834:32

    Large | Larger
    The Vinland Map Drawing in Pittsburgh Post Gazette, 1965
    Title: The Vinland Map Drawing in Pittsburgh Post Gazette, 1965
    Creator: Assoicated Press Wirephoto
    Notes: Map Drawn about 1440 A.D. which Yale scholars say proves Leif Ericson and Vikings explored North America half a century before Columbus set sail.

    Large | Larger
    C-14 Stump
    Title: C-14 Stump
    Creator: G. Vandervloogt
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology
    Reference Number: 4A-68E2-2
    Notes: The outer rings of one of the branches were radiocarbon-dated by the Isotrace Laboratory at the University of Toronto according to the AMS-method to AD 1000 ±10. (TO-119).

    Large | Larger
    Vikings in Hall A
    Title: Vikings in Hall A
    Creator: Parks Canada
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada photo collection, St. John's
    Notes: Re-enactors in the hall A replica.

    Large | Larger
    Kungsåra Bench
    Title: Kungsåra Bench
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: Personal Collection
    Notes: The back of a wooden bench from Kungsåra, Sweden. Statens Historiska Museum, Stockholm Sweden. The bench was originally painted in bright colours, and there were cushions on the seat.

    Large | Larger
    Imported glasses found at Birka, Sweden
    Title: Imported glasses found at Birka, Sweden
    Creator: ATA
    Archive or Repository: Statens Historiska Museum, Stockholm
    Reference Number: burial 577, 649. 644
    Notes: Glasses found in burials in the Swedish trading town Birka. Glasses 1 & 2 are from burial 577, 3 from 649, and 4 from 644.

    Large | Larger
    Weapons from Norway and Sweden on exhibit at Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, PA, 1968-1971
    Title: Weapons from Norway and Sweden on exhibit at Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, PA, 1968-1971
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: Personal Collection
    Notes: Viking weapons: axes, swords, spears, and bow and arrows. Shields were of wood reinforced with iron and covered with leather. The shield is a reconstruction; the iron rim and grip are original.

    Large | Larger
    Viking helmet from Gjermunbu, Ringerike, Norway. C 950
    Title: Viking helmet from Gjermunbu, Ringerike, Norway. C 950
    Creator: Peter Harholdt for Smithsonian Institution
    Archive or Repository: Universitetets Oldsaksamling, Oslo

    Large | Larger
    Staraja Ladoga (Novgorod) in Russia, the main centre for trade between Sweden and the Orient
    Title: Staraja Ladoga (Novgorod) in Russia, the main centre for trade between Sweden and the Orient
    Creator: Mårten Stenberger
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection

    Large | Larger
    Tomahawk, 2nd half of 18th Century
    Title: Tomahawk, 2nd half of 18th Century
    Creator: Rodney Hilton Brown
    Archive or Repository: American Polearms 1526-1865. The Lance, Halberd, Spontoon, Pike and Naval Boarding Weapons

    Large | Larger
    Pair of characteristic bronze brooches worn by women. From Birka, Sweden.
    Title: Pair of characteristic bronze brooches worn by women. From Birka, Sweden.
    Creator: Sören Hallgren for Statens Historiska Museum and Carnegie Museum of Natural History
    Archive or Repository: Objects in Statens Historiska Museum, Stockholm
    Collection or Fond: Seton's collection
    Reference Number: 474:5

    Large | Larger
    The Parks Canada Crew 1975
    Title: The Parks Canada Crew 1975
    Creator: Charles Lindsay
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology Photo collection
    Notes: The Parks Canada crew in 1975. The archaeologists, surveyors and conservators came from outside the area, but all the excavators were local fishermen. These latter were incredibly skilled in archaeological digging. Some of them had worked with the Ingstads on the earlier excavations as had archaeological assistant Birgitta Wallace (right bottom row).

    Large | Larger
    Dr. Anne Stine Ingstad, Excavating
    Title: Dr. Anne Stine Ingstad, Excavating
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection
    Notes: Dr. Anne Stine Ingstad excavating hall A. The Ingstad excavations took place 1961-64 and 1966-1968.

    Large | Larger
    Dr. Anne Stine Ingstad, 1968
    Title: Dr. Anne Stine Ingstad, 1968
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection
    Notes: Dr. Anne Stine Ingstad at L'Anse aux Meadows. The Ingstad excavations took place 1961-64 and 1966-1968.

    Large | Larger
    Tobacco Cutter
    Title: Tobacco Cutter
    Creator: Leo Sarnaki
    Archive or Repository: Carnegie Museum of Natural History Anthropology Section
    Reference Number: 9749
    Notes: Cutter used to cut plugs of tobacco. The cutters were produced in the 1890s as an advertisement gimmick by the American Tobacco Company. Collections of the National Museum of the American Indian, New York.

    Large | Larger
    A Viking couple.
    Title: A Viking couple.
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Exhibit 'Vikings,' Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, PA

    Large | Larger
    Adelsö runestone, U11, Hovgården, Adelsö. Located by the ruins of the medieval royal seat Adelsö in Uppland, Sweden.
    Title: Adelsö runestone, U11, Hovgården, Adelsö. Located by the ruins of the medieval royal seat Adelsö in Uppland, Sweden.
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Notes: The inscription says “You read the runes. Tolir, foreman in the King’s clearing had them cut correctly. Tolir and Gylla had the runes carved, this couple in memory of themselves. Hakon asked to have it carved. 11th Century.

    Large | Larger
    Birka, a Swedish trading centre
    Title: Birka, a Swedish trading centre
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection

    Large | Larger
    Viking Age burial site before excavation, Märsta, Sweden
    Title: Viking Age burial site before excavation, Märsta, Sweden
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection

    Large | Larger
    Viking Age burial site after sod removal, Märsta, Sweden
    Title: Viking Age burial site after sod removal, Märsta, Sweden
    Creator: B. Wallace

    Large | Larger
    Excavation of Viking Age burial, Märsta, Sweden
    Title: Excavation of Viking Age burial, Märsta, Sweden
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection

    Large | Larger
    American broadaxe from 1835
    Title: American broadaxe from 1835
    Creator: Henry J. Kauffman
    Pages: 65
    Notes: "Broadaxe probably made and used in Pennsylvania. Dated axes and very uncommon, and the “1835” on this one is incorporated into the decorative design. Such patterns were made with very simple tools. (Courtesy of the Pennsylvania Farm Museum of Landis Valley)" Quote from: Henry J. Kauffman, 1972. American axes. A survey of their development and their makers. P. 65 Brattleboro, VT: The Stephen Green Press

    Large | Larger
    House A & B Excavations 1973
    Title: House A & B Excavations 1973
    Creator: B. Schönbäck
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada archaeology photo collection
    Notes: The remains of hall A, facing southwest. Although parts of the wall are gone, their former outline can be seen in the curved whitish outline in the foreground.

    Large | Larger
    Hall A Cross-Section through Wall
    Title: Hall A Cross-Section through Wall
    Creator: Charles Lindsay
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology photo collection
    Notes: The construction incorporated both sod strips and blocks. The dark brown blocks are sedge peat from the bog adjacent to the building.

    Large | Larger
    Hut E and Bog
    Title: Hut E and Bog
    Creator: Thomas Lackey
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada archaeology photo collection
    Reference Number: 4A-1843T
    Notes: Hut E such as it would have been in the 11th century. Facing west. Model by David Coldwell, on exhibit at L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site.

    Large | Larger
    Model of D-E Complex
    Title: Model of D-E Complex
    Creator: Thomas Lackey
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada archaeology photo collection
    Reference Number: 4A-1861T
    Notes: Model of how the D-E complex would have appeared in the 11th century. Model by David Coldwell, on exhibit at L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site.

    Large | Larger
    Hut C
    Title: Hut C
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace Personal Collection
    Notes: The walls of hut C remained to a height of about 30 cm. Facing southeast.

    Large | Larger
    Dr. Bengt Schönbäck, Leader of the 73-75 LAM Excavations
    Title: Dr. Bengt Schönbäck, Leader of the 73-75 LAM Excavations
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology Photo Collection
    Reference Number: 4A-1648T
    Notes: The Parks Canada Agency manages all National Historic Sites of Canada. The agency created an International Advisory Committee to develop plans for the protection and development of the L'Anse aux Meadows site. The committee consisted of Helge and Anne Stine Ingstad and senior archaeologists from Canada and all the Scandinavian countries. The committee decided that further excavation was needed. Anne Stine Ingstad declined leadership of these as she had other tasks at hand. In her stead the committee called in Dr. Bengt Schönbäck from the Museum of National Antiquities in Stockholm Sweden. These excavations took place during the summers of 1973 to 1975.

    Large | Larger
    Photo Mosaic of A-B-C Complex Excavation
    Title: Photo Mosaic of A-B-C Complex Excavation
    Creator: Bengt Schonback
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology Laboratory
    Notes: Photo mosaic made from many joined overhead photographs. The A-B-C complex. The map shows the Ingstad excavation and drainage trenches.

    Large | Larger
    1973 Excavations
    Title: 1973 Excavations
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology
    Reference Number: 4A-1559T
    Notes: The 1973 excavations covered the areas between the houses. Facing south. The structure in the centre is a shed erected over the furnace hut by the Ingstad expedition. It has since been removed.

    Large | Larger
    Bundle of spruce roots after conservation
    Title: Bundle of spruce roots after conservation
    Creator: Daniel Crawford
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology
    Reference Number: 4A-1196T
    Notes: Parks Canada Archaeology Laboratory Halifax catalogue # 4A71K4-2

    Large | Larger
    Black Duck Brook, 1973
    Title: Black Duck Brook, 1973
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology
    Reference Number: 4A-355T

    Large | Larger
    Furnace Hut, Excavated
    Title: Furnace Hut, Excavated
    Creator: Bengt Schönbäck
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology Photo Collection
    Reference Number: 4A-796T
    Notes: The excavated floor of the furnace hut. Much of the sod on the walls was put there in 1962 to protect the remains of the original walls.

    Large | Larger
    Fragment of bone needle found in the longfire in hall D
    Title: Fragment of bone needle found in the longfire in hall D
    Creator: George Vandervloogt
    Collection or Fond: Parks Canada Archaeology laboratory
    Reference Number: 4A600A1-76

    Large | Larger
    Bone Needle Reconstruction
    Title: Bone Needle Reconstruction
    Creator: Unknown
    Archive or Repository: Packs Canada

    Large | Larger
    The Ariani Baptistery in Ravenna, Italy 5th, Century
    Title: The Ariani Baptistery in Ravenna, Italy 5th, Century
    Creator: Adrian Fletcher
    Archive or Repository: www.paradoxplace.com
    Notes: The Newport Tower was compared to baptisteries like this. The columns of the tower were believed to have had a surround similar to this.

    Large | Larger
    Phosphate concentrations on the L'Anse aux Meadows site
    Title: Phosphate concentrations on the L'Anse aux Meadows site
    Creator: B. Hebert for Parks Canada
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Agency, Halifax
    Collection or Fond: Archaeology Laboratory

    Large | Larger
    Dorset Palaeoeskimo Tent Floor
    Title: Dorset Palaeoeskimo Tent Floor
    Creator: Bengt Schönbäck
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology Photo collection
    Reference Number: 4A-674T
    Notes: Dorset Palaeoeskimo tent floor dating to the 7th century AD.

    Large | Larger
    Bog Ore
    Title: Bog Ore
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology Photo collection
    Reference Number: 4A-1518T
    Notes: The raw material for making iron was bog ore. The L'Anse aux Meadows area is rich in bog ore, which is constantly being formed along the brook and in the bogs.

    Large | Larger
    Hall D Walls, South End
    Title: Hall D Walls, South End
    Creator: Charles Lindsay
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada archaeology photo collection
    Reference Number: 4A-445T
    Notes: The southern end of the sod wall of hall D, facing northwest. The red-and-white bar is 1 m long.

    Large | Larger
    Hall D Turret Photo, Facing North
    Title: Hall D Turret Photo, Facing North
    Creator: Charles Lindsay
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada archaeology photo collection
    Reference Number: 4A-443T and 4A-445T
    Notes: Below the modern turf, the old sod forms a patchy pattern. Hall D, facing north. The circular feature in the centre and the planks through the walls were inserted in 1964 to improve drainage.

    Large | Larger
    Hut E Stones in Corner
    Title: Hut E Stones in Corner
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace Personal Collection
    Notes: Hut E , 1974. Facing west. The stones which may be weights for a fishing net or a loom are in the northwestern corner. The gravel is fill placed there in 1962.

    Large | Larger
    Photography
    Title: Photography
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology
    Reference Number: 4A-1651T
    Notes: Photography is an important element of excavation.

    Large | Larger
    Indian petroglyphs, Indian God Rock, Brandon, Venango County, Pennsylvania
    Title: Indian petroglyphs, Indian God Rock, Brandon, Venango County, Pennsylvania
    Creator: James L. Swauger
    Archive or Repository: Rock Art of the Upper Ohio Valley
    Collection or Fond: Akademische Druck und Verlagsanstalt, Graz, Austria
    Reference Number: Plate 77

    Large | Larger
    L'Anse aux Meadows General View
    Title: L'Anse aux Meadows General View
    Creator: The Parks Canada Crew 1975
    Archive or Repository: The Parks Canada Archaeology Photo Collection
    Reference Number: 4A-1235T

    Large | Larger
    Dorset Palaeoeskimo Harpoon Tips
    Title: Dorset Palaeoeskimo Harpoon Tips
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: The Parks Canada Archaeology photo collection
    Notes: Characteristic small Dorset Palaeoeskimo harpoon heads dating from the 6th-8th centuries found at L'Anse aux Meadows. They are made from chert, a hard stone that can be shaped by small light strokes.

    Large | Larger
    Typical Artifacts of 9th-century Aboriginal Occupation
    Title: Typical Artifacts of 9th-century Aboriginal Occupation
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: The Parks Canada Archaeology photo collection
    Notes: Large spear heads or knives of chert were found in a large cooking pit west of hall F. They are typical of Indian implements from the the 9th century AD found on the site

    Large | Larger
    The Point Seperating Epaves Bay from Medee Bay
    Title: The Point Seperating Epaves Bay from Medee Bay
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: The Parks Canada Archaeology phopto collection

    Large | Larger
    Treenail
    Title: Treenail
    Creator: G. Vandervloogt
    Archive or Repository: The Parks Canada Archaeology photo collection
    Reference Number: RA-2476B
    Notes: Treenails like this were used in both boats and buildings. Parks Canada artifact #4A68T2-6.

    Large | Larger
    Treenail
    Title: Treenail
    Creator: G. Vandervloogt
    Archive or Repository: The Parks Canada Archaeology photo collection
    Reference Number: RA-2476B
    Notes: Treenails like this were used in both boats and buildings. Parks Canada artifact #4A68T2-6.

    Large | Larger
    Hall F Fireplace
    Title: Hall F Fireplace
    Creator: Charles Lindsay
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology Photo collection
    Notes: The remains of the longfire in room II of the large hall F. Facing north. The Norse had feasted on seal here.

    Large | Larger
    Village of L'Anse aux Meadows
    Title: Village of L'Anse aux Meadows
    Creator: Rock Chan
    Archive or Repository: The Parks Canada Archaeology photo collection
    Notes: Air photo of the village of L'Anse aux Meadows, 1994. facing north.

    Large | Larger
    Hall A Footprint
    Title: Hall A Footprint
    Creator: Bengt Schönbäck
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada archaeology photo collection
    Reference Number: 4A-982T
    Notes: Hall A excavated and partly resodded. Hall A was the only one of the three halls not to have side rooms. However, it had four rooms which shows that it is of the same period as those with side rooms.

    Large | Larger
    High Summer Grass
    Title: High Summer Grass
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: B. Wallace Personal Collection
    Notes: The grass is high in the summer.

    Large | Larger
    LAM in July
    Title: LAM in July
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: Parks Canada Archaeology Photo Collection
    Reference Number: 4A-1571T
    Notes: The L'Anse aux Meadows landscape can be warm and inviting.

    Large | Larger
    Aboriginal Sites
    Title: Aboriginal Sites
    Creator: Bengt Schönbäck
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology Collection
    Reference Number: 4A-1095T
    Notes: The southern shore of Epaves Bay where most of the Aboriginal sites were located. the open area in the centre shows the excavation of some of them. Facing north.

    Large | Larger
    Hall F Wall Layers
    Title: Hall F Wall Layers
    Creator: Charles Lindsay
    Collection or Fond: Parks Canada Archaeology Photo collection
    Reference Number: 4A-1021T
    Notes: The excavated profile (cross-section) of the northern wall of hall F, room I shows how the wall was built up of sedge peat sod along the edges and looser fill in the middle. Over the years, the sod has been compressed to a fraction of its original thickness.

    Large | Larger
    Hall F Under Construction
    Title: Hall F Under Construction
    Creator: Thomas Lackey
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada archaeology photo collection
    Reference Number: 4A-1840T
    Notes: Model showing hall F during construction. Model by David Coldwell, on exhibit at L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site.

    Large | Larger
    Foot Print of Hall F
    Title: Foot Print of Hall F
    Creator: Rob Ferguson
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace Personal Collection
    Notes: The footprint of hall F, the largest and most complex hall on the site. Only chieftains lived in halls of this kind. The founder and leader of the L'Anse aux Meadows settlement would have resided here.

    Large | Larger
    Hall D, Restored
    Title: Hall D, Restored
    Creator: Bengt Schönbäck
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada archaeology photo collection
    Reference Number: 4A-1079T
    Notes: Before excavation, the outlines of the walls were visible as low ridges, up to 30 cm high, but obscured by tall grass. In this photo the grass has been cut, and the sod replaced after completed excvation. Facing south.

    Large | Larger
    Recording Field Work
    Title: Recording Field Work
    Creator: Charles Lindsay
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology
    Reference Number: 4A-1141T
    Notes: All aspects of the field work are recorded.

    Large | Larger
    L'Anse aux Meadows and Epaves Bay, facing east
    Title: L'Anse aux Meadows and Epaves Bay, facing east
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology
    Reference Number: 4A-1563T

    Large | Larger
    Three Layers of Wood
    Title: Three Layers of Wood
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology
    Reference Number: 4A-1630T
    Notes: A cut through the bog showed the presence of three layers of wood. The building in the backgrund is a shelter erected by the Ingstad excavation over hut E. It has since been removed. Facing east.

    Large | Larger
    1975 Excavation Helicopter Photo
    Title: 1975 Excavation Helicopter Photo
    Creator: B. Schonback
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology
    Reference Number: 4A-849T
    Notes: The 1975 excavations. These excavations focussed on the bog margin bordering the Norse houses.

    Large | Larger
    Cut Post
    Title: Cut Post
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology photo collection
    Notes: Log of Balsam fir, cut with a metal adze. Parks Canada Archaeology Laboratory, Halifax. Catalogue # 4A73H3-1.

    Large | Larger
    Olaus Magnus Mooring Bolts
    Title: Olaus Magnus Mooring Bolts
    Creator: Olaus Magnus
    Archive or Repository: Historia om de nordiska folken [History of the Nordic People]
    Reference Number: vol. 2, Chapter 13
    Notes: Figure in the 16th-century work by the Swedish Bishop Olaus Magnus used to corraborate the existence of mooring holes at Follins Pond. The figure shows the harbour in the large shipping centre Bergen in Norway in the 1550s. The title reads "About harbours with iron rings attached to rocks." The text states that the rings are permanently attached to the rock with molten lead. The rings were needed because the depth of the water was so great that one could not always use anchors.

    Large | Larger
    Birgitta Wallace, 1976
    Title: Birgitta Wallace, 1976
    Creator: Rob Ferguson
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology Photo Collection
    Notes: Birgitta Wallace 1976. When Bengt Schönbäck returned to Sweden in 1975, Birgitta Wallace became the director for the last year of excavation, which took place in 1976. She has been the Parks Canada archaeologist for the site since then.

    Large | Larger
    Bog Excavation West of Hall A, 1976
    Title: Bog Excavation West of Hall A, 1976
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology
    Reference Number: 4A-1164T
    Notes: Thanks to the water and tannic acid in the bog, wood was perfectly preserved. The excavation required the trenches to be pumped out every morning. Facing northeast.

    Large | Larger
    Bog Excavation
    Title: Bog Excavation
    Creator: Rob Ferguson
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology
    Reference Number: 4A-1441T
    Notes: Excavation in a wet bog is difficult and often uncomfortable. The surfaces are so soft that one cannot walk on them without disturbing the stratigraphy.

    Large | Larger
    The spruce root bundle 4A71K4-2 in situ, 1976
    Title: The spruce root bundle 4A71K4-2 in situ, 1976
    Creator: Donald Brown
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology
    Reference Number: 4A-1196T
    Notes: Over 600 Norse wood pieces were found in the bog. Facing west.

    Large | Larger
    Bog Excavations, 1976
    Title: Bog Excavations, 1976
    Creator: Rob Ferguson
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology photo
    Reference Number: 4A-1275T
    Notes: The excavations in the bog continued in 1976. Excavation west of hall A. Facing northeast.

    Large | Larger
    Bog Excavation, Middle Layer
    Title: Bog Excavation, Middle Layer
    Creator: Rob Ferguson
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology
    Reference Number: 4A-1635T
    Notes: The middle layer in the bog contained most of the worked wood. The wood had been worked with metal tools. Facing west

    Large | Larger
    Bog Excavations, Upper Layer
    Title: Bog Excavations, Upper Layer
    Creator: Donald Brown
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology
    Reference Number: 4A-1116T
    Notes: The upper layer, AD c. 1200-1600, contained some wood worked with stone tools. Facing west.

    Large | Larger
    Middle Layer Bog Excavation, Facing West
    Title: Middle Layer Bog Excavation, Facing West
    Creator: Rob Ferguson
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology
    Reference Number: 4A-1634T
    Notes: The middle layer in the bog, dating from AD c. 600 to 1100. Facing west.

    Large | Larger
    Upper Layer Bog Excavation, Facing West
    Title: Upper Layer Bog Excavation, Facing West
    Creator: Rob Ferguson
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology
    Reference Number: 4A-1133T
    Notes: The upper layer in the bog, dating to the period AD c. 1200-1600. Facing west.

    Large | Larger
    The bottom layer
    Title: The bottom layer
    Creator: Rob Ferguson
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Agency
    Collection or Fond: Archaeology photo collection
    Reference Number: 4A-1360T

    Large | Larger
    The Ameralla Fjord in the West Settlement
    Title: The Ameralla Fjord in the West Settlement
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: Personal Collection
    Notes: The Ameralla Fjord in the Western Settlement. The biggest estate in the district at the head of the fjord.

    Large | Larger
    Erik's Fjord (Tunulliarfik Fjord)
    Title: Erik's Fjord (Tunulliarfik Fjord)
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: Personal Collection

    Large | Larger
    Gardar (Igaliku) the most prosperous estate in Norse Greenland
    Title: Gardar (Igaliku) the most prosperous estate in Norse Greenland
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Notes: Gardar (Igaliku), the most prosperous estate in Norse Greenland. The ruins are scattered among modern Inuit buildings.

    Large | Larger
    The green Qorlortoq Valley
    Title: The green Qorlortoq Valley
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: B. Wallace Personal Collection
    Notes: The green Qorlortoq Valley, which extends between Erik's Fjord [Tunulliarfik) and Isafjord (Sermilik). Erik the Red was not off the mark when he named this land Greenland.

    Large | Larger
    Qolortoq Valley
    Title: Qolortoq Valley
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: B. Wallace Personal Collection

    Large | Larger
    Danish archaeologist Jørgen Meldgaard
    Title: Danish archaeologist Jørgen Meldgaard
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace Personal Collection
    Notes: In 1956 the Danish archaeologist Jørgen Meldgaard surveyed Newfoundland's Northern Peninsula in search of Norse sites. Meldgaard conducted test excavations at Westerbrook on Pistolet Bay but did not find any evidence of the Norse.

    Large | Larger
    Sandnes, the biggest estate in the West Settlement
    Title: Sandnes, the biggest estate in the West Settlement
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace collection

    Large | Larger
    Pollen Chart Monolith
    Title: Pollen Chart Monolith
    Creator: J. H. McAndrews and A. Davis.

    Large | Larger
    Kensington Stone Runes
    Title: Kensington Stone Runes
    Creator: Joanne Ertzman
    Notes: Compare these runes to those in the Script section and see where you think they fit best.

    Large | Larger
    Full-scale replica of hall A under construction
    Title: Full-scale replica of hall A under construction
    Creator: Brian Gallant for Parks Canada
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Agency
    Collection or Fond: Archaeology photo collection
    Reference Number: 4A-1689T

    Large | Larger
    The excavated floor of the hall at Stöng, Iceland
    Title: The excavated floor of the hall at Stöng, Iceland
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Notes: The longfire is in the middle of the floor. The vertical stone supported wooden platforms along the walls. Several have fallen over.

    Large | Larger
    Italian axe, c. 1730- 1746 in Tojhusmusset, Denmark
    Title: Italian axe, c. 1730- 1746 in Tojhusmusset, Denmark
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: Personal Collection

    Large | Larger
    Viking axehead, Swedish, unknown provenance 9th century
    Title: Viking axehead, Swedish, unknown provenance 9th century
    Creator: B. Wallace

    Large | Larger
    Viking axehead, Thröttens parish Gudbrandsdalen, Norway. 11th-12th century.
    Title: Viking axehead, Thröttens parish Gudbrandsdalen, Norway. 11th-12th century.
    Creator: B. Wallace

    Large | Larger
    Axehead from Cupids, Newfoundland, 1610- 1660
    Title: Axehead from Cupids, Newfoundland, 1610- 1660
    Creator: William Gilbert

    Large | Larger
    Loom in National Museum of Iceland
    Title: Loom in National Museum of Iceland
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: Personal Collection
    Notes: Spinning, weaving, knitting and sewing were female tasks. Weaving was done on an upright loom of the same design as this relatively recent loom in the collections of the National Museum of Iceland.

    Large | Larger
    Árbær outdoor museum, Reykjavik
    Title: Árbær outdoor museum, Reykjavik
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: Personal Collection
    Notes: Sod buildings continued to be in use in Iceland well into the 20th century. The house in the foreground dates from around 1900.

    Large | Larger
    Thjorsardalur Valley Southern Iceland
    Title: Thjorsardalur Valley Southern Iceland
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: Personal Collection
    Notes: Thjorsardalur, a valley in southern Iceland devastated by a volcanic eruption in 1104 and 1300.

    Large | Larger
    Reconstruction of the Hall at Stöng
    Title: Reconstruction of the Hall at Stöng
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: Personal Collection
    Notes: Reconstruction of the hall at Stöng in Thjorsardalur in southern Iceland, destroyed by a volcanic eruption in 1104 and again in 1300.

    Large | Larger
    Reconstructed Stöng hall and Thjorsardalur valley
    Title: Reconstructed Stöng hall and Thjorsardalur valley
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: Personal Collection

    Large | Larger
    The Excavated Hall at Stöng
    Title: The Excavated Hall at Stöng
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: B. Wallace Personal Collection
    Notes: The roof and all wooden elements had been destroyed and rotted away but the walls, the earth floor and stone parts of the construction remained. The remains have been roofed over and are open to tourists.

    Large | Larger
    Dorset Lamp
    Title: Dorset Lamp
    Creator: Dan Crawford
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology Photo Collection
    Notes: This small soapstone oil lamp is a mystery. Such lamps are usually found only in the high Arctic and date from the late Dorset Palaeoeskimo period, that is from after the 11th century. The lamp was found embedded in the modern sod above the furnace hut at L'Anse aux Meadows (you can see it marked in the profile of the furnace hut). The hut had already collapsed when the lamp became embedded in the sod, so it postdates the Norse. A radiocarbon date on the material inside the lamp gave the result "modern." But how did it end up on the site?

    Large | Larger
    The reconstructed 'knorr' Saga Siglar in Halifax 1984 after crossing the Atlantic
    Title: The reconstructed 'knorr' Saga Siglar in Halifax 1984 after crossing the Atlantic
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection

    Large | Larger
    'Saga Siglar' in Halifax 1984
    Title: 'Saga Siglar' in Halifax 1984
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection

    Large | Larger
    Slag
    Title: Slag
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology Photo collection
    Reference Number: 4A-1519T
    Notes: One of the byproducts of iron production is slag. Metallurgical analyses of the L'Anse aux Meadows slag showed that the producers had not been particularly skilful and that the furnace had been fired only once.

    Large | Larger
    Rune Calendars Mora Museum. Mora. Darlarna, Sweden.
    Title: Rune Calendars Mora Museum. Mora. Darlarna, Sweden.
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Personal Collection
    Notes: Late 19th century Swedish rune calendar. Perpetual calendars where days and special holidays were indicated by runes were common in rural Sweden throughout the 19th century.

    Large | Larger
    Rök runestone, ög 136. Rök, Östergötland, Sweden.
    Title: Rök runestone, ög 136. Rök, Östergötland, Sweden.
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Notes: The Rök stone was erected c. 800, a period of transition from the Old to the New Futharks and contains runes from both futharks. Its inscription is longer than on any other runestone and contains elaborate poetic references to legendary events.

    Large | Larger
    Tower built at Glendalough monastery in Ireland to protect monastic treasures during Viking raids.
    Title: Tower built at Glendalough monastery in Ireland to protect monastic treasures during Viking raids.
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection

    Large | Larger
    View of Site Facing Northwest
    Title: View of Site Facing Northwest
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: B. Wallace Personal Collection
    Notes: View of the site facing northwest. Epaves Bay is to the left. It is separated from Medee Bay to the right by a low flat point, Beak Point. In the background is Great Sacred Island which forms a characteristic land mark. A small flat island, Warren Island lies just off Beak Point. The Labrador coast is visible in the background. The green outlines on the terrace to the right are the footprints of the Norse buildings.

    Large | Larger
    Bone pin with yarn from the East Settlement, Greenland
    Title: Bone pin with yarn from the East Settlement, Greenland
    Creator: Leif C. Vebæk
    Archive or Repository: "The Church Topography of the Eastern Settlement and the Excavation of the Benedictine Convent at Narsarsuaq in the Uunartoq Fjord."
    Collection or Fond: Meddelelser om Grønland, Man & Society 14
    Notes: Two needles of bone, one of them still with woolen thread in the eye. (Length of longest need;e, ca. 11 cm) These pins were found at the Norse site Narsarsuaq in the East Settlement in Greenland.

    Large | Larger
    Willow rope From Narsaq
    Title: Willow rope From Narsaq
    Creator: Christen Leif Vebæk
    Archive or Repository: “Narsaq - a Norse landnáma farm.”
    Collection or Fond: Meddelelser om Grønland, Man and Society 17
    Notes: 'This hoop from the Norse site Narsaq in the East Settlement in Greenland was made in the same way as the rope stumps from L'Anse aux Meadows.'

    Large | Larger
    13th-century door from ‘The Farm Below the Sand’, Greenland
    Title: 13th-century door from ‘The Farm Below the Sand’, Greenland
    Creator: Joel Berglund and Arneborg Jette
    Archive or Repository: “Gården under Sandet.” tusaat, Forskning i Grønland, 4
    Reference Number: 7-19
    Notes: Door found at the "Farm beneth the sand" in the West Settlement, Greenland. It was made of three wide planks held together with two horizontals attached with treenails. The door is 1.10 m high.

    Large | Larger
    Bracteate from Tjurkö, Augerum parish. Blekinge. Statens Historiska Museum # 1453, Stockholm.
    Title: Bracteate from Tjurkö, Augerum parish. Blekinge. Statens Historiska Museum # 1453, Stockholm.
    Creator: Unknown
    Editor: Anita Knape
    Pages: 52
    Notes: The bracteate, which is of gold and measures 27cm in diameter, has an inscription in Proto-Norse in Old Futhark runes. It says “Hald made the runes on the French gold.”

    Large | Larger
    Isle of Skye in the Hebrides.
    Title: Isle of Skye in the Hebrides.
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection

    Large | Larger
    The Chesterton Mill, England
    Title: The Chesterton Mill, England
    Creator: Johannes Hertz
    Archive or Repository: Round Church or Windmill? New Light on the the Newport Tower, Rhode Island, USA

    Large | Larger
    American Dune Grass
    Title: American Dune Grass
    Creator: Kevin Leonard
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection
    Notes: American dune grass, [[italics]]Elymus mollis[[/]], Saint-John River valley, New Brunswick.

    Large | Larger
    Wild Grapes
    Title: Wild Grapes
    Creator: Kevin Leonard
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection
    Notes: Wild grapes, [[italics]]Vitis riparia[[/]], Saint -John river valley, New Brunswick.

    Large | Larger
    Wild Grapevines
    Title: Wild Grapevines
    Creator: Kevin Leonard
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection
    Notes: Wild grapevines climbing tree, Saint-John River valley, New Brunswick.

    Large | Larger
    Picture Stone from Tjängvide, Sweden
    Title: Picture Stone from Tjängvide, Sweden
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Personal Collection
    Notes: Now in Statens Historiska Museum, Stockholm

    Large | Larger
    Cupboard front with runic inscription dating to 1878 in the collections of the National Museum. Reykjavik.
    Title: Cupboard front with runic inscription dating to 1878 in the collections of the National Museum. Reykjavik.
    Creator: Guðmundur Ingólfsson
    Pages: Cover
    Notes: In Iceland runes were commonly carved on wooden household articles throughout the 19th century.

    Large | Larger
    Skógar, 19th-century farm in southern Iceland
    Title: Skógar, 19th-century farm in southern Iceland
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: Personal Collection

    Large | Larger
    Birds at LAM
    Title: Birds at LAM
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: B. Wallace Personal Collection
    Notes: The off-shore islands and the rocky outcrops are covered with birds.

    Large | Larger
    Woman with an elaborate hairdo or headdress and dressed in long pleated dress and a cape, holding drinking horns.  Picture stone from Tjängvide, Gotland, Sweden.
    Title: Woman with an elaborate hairdo or headdress and dressed in long pleated dress and a cape, holding drinking horns. Picture stone from Tjängvide, Gotland, Sweden.
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection
    Collection or Fond: Stone now in Statens Historiska Museum, Stockholm
    Reference Number: G110

    Large | Larger
    Men in trousers and long shirts on picture stone from Tjängvide, Gotland, Sweden.
    Title: Men in trousers and long shirts on picture stone from Tjängvide, Gotland, Sweden.
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection
    Collection or Fond: Stone now in Statens Historiska Museum, Stockholm
    Reference Number: G110

    Large | Larger
    Replica of Viking Age silver amulet in form of the head of a man, found at Aska, Sweden.
    Title: Replica of Viking Age silver amulet in form of the head of a man, found at Aska, Sweden.
    Creator: Verner Wicke
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada

    Large | Larger
    Butternut, Juglans cinerea, a North American member of the walnut family.
    Title: Butternut, Juglans cinerea, a North American member of the walnut family.
    Creator: Shane Kelly for Parks Canada
    Archive or Repository: L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site
    Notes: Three butternuts and a butternut wood burl were found in the Norse layers. Butternuts have never grown north of eastern New Brunswick. This means that they were brought to the site by the Norse, indicating that the Norse had travelled at least as far south as New Brunswick. The butternuts grow in the same areas as wild grapes, so the Norse who picked the nuts probably encountered grapes as well.

    Large | Larger
    Stöng Reconstruction Sod Laying Patterns
    Title: Stöng Reconstruction Sod Laying Patterns
    Creator: Robert Ferguson
    Collection or Fond: B. Wallace Personal Collection
    Notes: Stöng reconstruction. Some Icelandic sod laying patterns are highly decorative.

    Large | Larger
    Stöng bedcloset
    Title: Stöng bedcloset
    Creator: Robert Ferguson
    Collection or Fond: B. Wallace Personal Collection

    Large | Larger
    Stöng Reproduction Doorway
    Title: Stöng Reproduction Doorway
    Creator: Robert Ferguson
    Collection or Fond: B. Wallace Personal Collection

    Large | Larger
    Thingvellir
    Title: Thingvellir
    Creator: Robert Ferguson
    Collection or Fond: B. Wallace Personal Collection

    Large | Larger
    Necessities Aboard Ship
    Title: Necessities Aboard Ship
    Creator: Robert Ferguson
    Collection or Fond: B. Wallace Personal Collection
    Notes: Necessities aboard ship. Viking Ship Museum, exhibits, Roskilde, Denmark.

    Large | Larger
    Stöng Hall Reconstruction Interior
    Title: Stöng Hall Reconstruction Interior
    Creator: Robert Ferguson
    Collection or Fond: B. Wallace Personal Collection
    Notes: Interior of the reconstructed Stöng hall.It is probably somewhat more elaborate than the original.

    Large | Larger
    Boat Repair Shed
    Title: Boat Repair Shed
    Creator: Rob Ferguson
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace Personal Collection
    Notes: Model showing the boat repair shed attached to hall F.

    Large | Larger
    Ingstad Plaque
    Title: Ingstad Plaque
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Notes: Plaque commemorating the Ingstad discoveries at L'Anse aux Meadows, now a National Historic Site of Canada.

    Large | Larger
    L'Anse aux Meadows Models Overview
    Title: L'Anse aux Meadows Models Overview
    Creator: Rob Ferguson and Thomas Lackey
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace Photo Collection
    Notes: Models by David Coldwell depicting site as it may have been in 11th century. Top model is in the City Museum, Reykjavik, Iceland. Bottom model is on exhibit at L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site.

    Large | Larger
    Thingvellir, Iceland
    Title: Thingvellir, Iceland
    Creator: Rob Ferguson
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection

    Large | Larger
    Reconstruction of the Äskekärr ship. C. 930.
    Title: Reconstruction of the Äskekärr ship. C. 930.
    Creator: Göteborgs arkeologiska museum
    Archive or Repository: Göteborgs arkeologiska museum, Gothenburg, Sweden

    Large | Larger
    Birch bark cup.
    Title: Birch bark cup.
    Creator: Peter Harholdt for the Arctic Studies Center, Smithsonian Institution
    Archive or Repository: L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site
    Reference Number: 4A68H3-14

    Large | Larger
    Runestone by Hög church, Hs no number, Hälsingland, Sweden
    Title: Runestone by Hög church, Hs no number, Hälsingland, Sweden
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Notes: The text says: “Vitfast had this stone erected in memory of Udde, his father. God help his soul. They carved the runes, Alver and Brand.” 11[[superscript]] th[[/superscript]]Century.

    Large | Larger
    Runestone by Hög church, Hs 12, Hälsingland, Sweden
    Title: Runestone by Hög church, Hs 12, Hälsingland, Sweden
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Notes: The text says: “Gudnjut Truson has this stone erected and made the bridge in memory of his brothers Åsbjörn and [Ganlev?]”. The stone has a Christian cross and dates to the 11[[superscript]] th[[/superscript]]Century.

    Large | Larger
    The Badlelunda Stone, Vem 13, Badelunda, Västmanland, Sweden.
    Title: The Badlelunda Stone, Vem 13, Badelunda, Västmanland, Sweden.
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Personal Collection
    Notes: Runestone by large burial mound, the Anund Mound, at Badelunda, Västmanland, Sweden. The text says “Folkvid had all these stones raised in memory of Heden, his son, Anund’s brother. Vred cut the runes.”

    Large | Larger
    Maglehøj stone. Runestone at the Maglehøj burial mound near Ølstykke church, Sealand, Denmark.
    Title: Maglehøj stone. Runestone at the Maglehøj burial mound near Ølstykke church, Sealand, Denmark.
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Notes: Runestones carved in the period 1835-1890. One of three stones commissioned by the Revered K.E. Møhl; in memory of his wife who died in 1835. The stones were placed around a Bronze Age burial mound. The runes are a mixture of the Old and New Futharks. The text on this one says “Don’t cry, only remember.”

    Large | Larger
    Gripsholm runestone, SÖ 179 by Gripsholm castle in Mariefred, Kämbo parish Södermanland, Sweden.
    Title: Gripsholm runestone, SÖ 179 by Gripsholm castle in Mariefred, Kämbo parish Södermanland, Sweden.
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Notes: The stone is one of the so called Ingvar stones commemorating men who participated and died in the attacks led by the chieftain Ingvar in Serkland, the land of the Saracens. Probably present-day Iraq. The text says “Tola had this stone erected in memory of Harald. Ingvar’s brother. They went away like men/ far away seeking gold/and in the east/ gave the eagle food [died in battle]. They died southward/ in Serkland.” The expedition was a failure, and nobody seems to have returned. Circa 1040.

    Large | Larger
    Bure’s Stone, M1 in Nolby, Medelpad, Sweden.
    Title: Bure’s Stone, M1 in Nolby, Medelpad, Sweden.
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Notes: The inscription says: “Bergsven and Sigfast and Fride erected this stone in memory of Bure, their father. And Fartegn carved [the runes].” 11th Century.

    Large | Larger
    14th Century Icelandic Gravestone at Höskuld church in Skagaströnd
    Title: 14th Century Icelandic Gravestone at Höskuld church in Skagaströnd
    Creator: Þórgunnur Snædal
    Pages: 5-33, fig. 9
    Notes: The inscription says HER HUILIR SIRA MARTEINN PRESTR “Here rests Sir Martin Priest.” Late 14th century.

    Large | Larger
    Bottom of wooden milk bowl from Liden in Älvdalen, Darlarna, Sweden. Dated to 1792
    Title: Bottom of wooden milk bowl from Liden in Älvdalen, Darlarna, Sweden. Dated to 1792
    Creator: Þórgunnur Snædal
    Pages: 5-33, fig. 5
    Notes: The inscription says EES OPS 1782:DÅ:VAR:IAG:HÄR:WID:MAK;MYRA;I;FRÅN 26 IULI: TIL AUGUSTI:06 : INTE:BÄRGA:ET: STRÅ:GUD:VET:WAD:SOM:BLIR:AF:OS:I:ÅR WI HOP:PAS:DÄ:BÄSTA:MAK:MYR:DEN 3 AUGUSTI 1782:EES “E[rik] E[re]s[on] O[lof] P[er]s[son] 1782 then I was here at Makmyr from the 26 of July to 4 August and did not harvest a straw. God knows what will become of us this year. We hope for the best. Makmyr the 3 August 1782. E[rik] E[rs]s[on].

    Large | Larger
    Reconstruction of Erik the Red's home in Iceland
    Title: Reconstruction of Erik the Red's home in Iceland
    Creator: Guðmundur Ólafsson

    Large | Larger
    Reconstruction of the hall at Stöng, Iceland, interior
    Title: Reconstruction of the hall at Stöng, Iceland, interior
    Creator: Rob Ferguson

    Large | Larger
    Reconstruction of the hall at Stöng, Iceland
    Title: Reconstruction of the hall at Stöng, Iceland
    Creator: Birgitta Wallace

    Large | Larger
    Production of Bog Ore in Smelting Furnace
    Title: Production of Bog Ore in Smelting Furnace
    Creator: Darlene Hamilton
    Archive or Repository: Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga
    Collection or Fond: The Smithsonian Institution
    Reference Number: Page 47

    Large | Larger
    Parkers Brook, Pistolet Bay NL
    Title: Parkers Brook, Pistolet Bay NL
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace Personal Collection
    Notes: Parkers Brook, Pistolet Bay, Newfoundland. Facing north. William Munn believed that the main Vinland settlement was on Pistolet Bay, about 25 km southwest of L'Anse aux Meadows near Parkers Brook.

    Large | Larger
    William Munn
    Title: William Munn
    Creator: Unknown
    Archive or Repository: The Evening Telegraph Ltd., St. John's
    Notes: The first to suggest that L'Anse aux Meadows was the site where Leif Eriksson stepped ashore was the Newfoundlander William Munn. He wrote a series of articles on this topic for "The Evening Telegram" in St. John's, Newfoundland, which were published in 1914 in a small book, [[italics]]The Vineland Voyages. The Location of Helluland, Markland and Vinland from the Icelandic Sagas[[/]].

    Large | Larger
    Furnace Hut Model
    Title: Furnace Hut Model
    Creator: David Coldwell
    Archive or Repository: Smithsonian Exhibit Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga
    Notes: The furnace hut as it may have appeared in the 11th century.

    Large | Larger
    Furnace Hut Location, Modern Day
    Title: Furnace Hut Location, Modern Day
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace Personal Collection
    Notes: The furnace hut was set into the brook bank at a point of small rapids. It was open to the brook.

    Large | Larger
    The Charcoal Kiln
    Title: The Charcoal Kiln
    Creator: Thomas Lackey
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada archaeology photo collection
    Reference Number: 4A-1850T
    Notes: Model showing the making of charcoal in a pit 7 m southwest of the furnace hut. Model by David Coldwell, on exhibit at L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site

    Large | Larger
    Bog Ore Collection
    Title: Bog Ore Collection
    Creator: Robert Ferguson
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace Personal Collection
    Notes: Model showing the collection of bog ore along the bog at L'Anse aux Meadows. Model by David Coldwell for the Smithsonian exhibit Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga, 2000.

    Large | Larger
    Westerbrook, Pistolet Bay NL
    Title: Westerbrook, Pistolet Bay NL
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace Personal Collection
    Notes: Danish archaeologist, Jørgen Meldgaard, conducted test excavations at Westerbrook in 1956 but did not find any evidence of the Norse.

    Large | Larger
    LAM Visitors' Centre
    Title: LAM Visitors' Centre
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection
    Notes: After the completion of the Ingstad excavations in 1968, the historical significance of the L'Anse aux Meadows site was recognized by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, and in 1975 a Federal-Provincial agreement was signed to make it a National Historic Site of Canada. All such sites are managed by the [[link http://www.pc.gc.ca/lhn-nhs/nl/meadows/index_E.asp]] Parks Canada Agency [[/link]], In 1978, the site was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the first site in the world to be so honoured. There is now a modern Visitor Centre on the site with an exhibit featuring the site.

    Large | Larger
    Nytt om runer, cover
    Title: Nytt om runer, cover
    Creator: Unknown
    Editor: James E. Knirk
    Pages: cover
    Notes: (published 2003)

    Large | Larger
    Swedish Amulets of Female Figures
    Title: Swedish Amulets of Female Figures
    Creator: ATA
    Archive or Repository: Statens Historiska Museum, Stockholm
    Reference Number: 10035, Bj968,128
    Notes: Four small amulets showing women in long dress and shawls from Sweden. The first one also has a necklace. She appears to be wearing a jumper over a pleated dress with a train. All have elaborate hairdos, although the last one may be wearing a cap. This figure is carrying a drinking horn and probably represents a valkyrie. the amulets are of bronze and silver; the largest is 3.2 cm high. From left to right they are from Tuna, Uppland, Statens Historiska, Stockholm #10035 Birka, Uppland,Statens Historiska Museum, Stockholm [2 and 3] # Bj968 Köping, Öland, Statens Historiska Museum, Stockholm #128

    Large | Larger
    Ingstad Bust
    Title: Ingstad Bust
    Creator: Dale Wells
    Notes: Bust of Anne Stine and Helge Ingstad commemorating the Ingstad discoveries at L'Anse aux Meadows, now a National Historic Site of Canada.

    Large | Larger
    East Settlement Ruin E40a
    Title: East Settlement Ruin E40a
    Creator: Steffen Stumman Hansen
    Notes: East Settlement ruin E40a, one of the best preserved ruins.

    Large | Larger
    Head of Tunulliarfik, Eriksfjord fjord
    Title: Head of Tunulliarfik, Eriksfjord fjord
    Creator: Steffan Stumman Hansen

    Large | Larger
    Statue of Leif Eriksson erected at Brattahlid [Quassiarsuk] in 2000
    Title: Statue of Leif Eriksson erected at Brattahlid [Quassiarsuk] in 2000
    Creator: Steffan Stumman Hansen

    Large | Larger
    Qorlortoq Valley
    Title: Qorlortoq Valley
    Creator: Steffen Stumman Hansen
    Notes: The buildings are modern inuit farms.

    Large | Larger
    Erik's Fjord [Tunulliarfik] Facing West
    Title: Erik's Fjord [Tunulliarfik] Facing West
    Creator: Steffen Stumman Hansen

    Large | Larger
    Ruins of farm E40 at Head of Eriksfjord
    Title: Ruins of farm E40 at Head of Eriksfjord
    Creator: Steffan Stumman Hansen

    Large | Larger
    Site of farm E 192, Erik's Fjord
    Title: Site of farm E 192, Erik's Fjord
    Creator: Steffen Stumman Hansen

    Large | Larger
    Brattahlid
    Title: Brattahlid
    Creator: Steffen Stumman Hansen

    Large | Larger
    View over Qinngua
    Title: View over Qinngua
    Creator: Steffen Stumman Hansen

    Large | Larger
    Ruins of a Viking Age church in Leirvik, Faeroe Islands
    Title: Ruins of a Viking Age church in Leirvik, Faeroe Islands
    Creator: Steffen Stumman Hansen
    Notes: Presumed site of Brattahlid. The grassy outline in front is what remains of the 11th-century church built by Thjodhild, wife of Erik the Red.

    Large | Larger
    Thjodhild's Church, Reconstruction
    Title: Thjodhild's Church, Reconstruction
    Creator: Steffen Stumman Hansen
    Notes: Brattahlid, Greenland. Reconstruction of "Thjodhild's church." In the background: reconstruction of Erik the Red's Icelandic hall.

    Large | Larger
    Statuette of Frey
    Title: Statuette of Frey
    Creator: ATA
    Archive or Repository: Statens Historika Museum, Stockholm
    Notes: Small bronze statuette depicting the god Frey. Frey is wearing a typical conical Viking helmet.

    Large | Larger
    The Furnace Hut Reconstruction
    Title: The Furnace Hut Reconstruction
    Creator: Rebecca Harrison
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace Personal Collection
    Notes: Reconstruction of the furnace hut. at L'Anse aux Meadows. The stone in the foreground, set on a tree stump, is where the iron was beaten with a sledge hammer as soon as it was retrieved from the furnace. This drove out some of the non-iron particles so that the iron could then be forged into the desired products. - The furnace can be seen in the background

    Large | Larger
    Birgitta Wallace & Clayton Colburne, 2002
    Title: Birgitta Wallace & Clayton Colburne, 2002
    Creator: Rob Ferguson
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology Photo Collection
    Notes: Birgitta Wallace with Parks Canada guide Clayton Colbourne, one of the locals who helped excavate the site in the 1970s.

    Large | Larger
    Ruins of a Viking Age church surrounded by a sub-circular cemetery wall at Leirvik, the Faeroes Islands.
    Title: Ruins of a Viking Age church surrounded by a sub-circular cemetery wall at Leirvik, the Faeroes Islands.
    Creator: Steffen Stumman Hansen
    Archive or Repository: Steffen Stumman Hansen photo collection

    Large | Larger
    Reconstruction of church possibly built by Leif Leif Eriksson's mother Thjodhild
    Title: Reconstruction of church possibly built by Leif Leif Eriksson's mother Thjodhild
    Creator: Steffen Stumman Hansen
    Archive or Repository: Stumman Hansen private colelction

    Large | Larger
    Reconstruction drawing of Birka burial No. 660
    Title: Reconstruction drawing of Birka burial No. 660
    Creator: Thórhallur Thráinsson
    Archive or Repository: Neil S. Price, The Viking Way. Religion and War in Late Iron Age Scandinavia.
    Collection or Fond: Figure 3.5

    Large | Larger
    Reconstruction drawings of burial No. 834 at Birka, Sweden
    Title: Reconstruction drawings of burial No. 834 at Birka, Sweden
    Creator: Thórhallur Thráinsson
    Archive or Repository: Neil Price, The Viking Way. Religion and War in Late Iron Age Scandinavia
    Collection or Fond: Figures 3.8a and 3.8b

    Large | Larger
    Shoreline
    Title: Shoreline
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: B. Wallace Personal Collection
    Notes: The shoreline facing northeast. In the background the replica buildings just north of the actual site.

    Large | Larger
    Statue of Leif Eriksson in Reykjavik
    Title: Statue of Leif Eriksson in Reykjavik
    Creator: Peter van der Krogt
    Archive or Repository: http://leiferiksson.vanderkrogt.net/index.html
    Collection or Fond: LEIF ERIKSSON MONUMENTS PAGES

    Large | Larger
    Electromagnetic Survey Glaumbaer, Iceland
    Title: Electromagnetic Survey Glaumbaer, Iceland
    Creator: Paul Steinberg
    Archive or Repository: Paul Steinberg photo collection
    Notes: Electromagnetic survey of a farm at Glaumbaer in northern Iceland by the American archaeologist Paul Steinberg. Via the survey the presence of Viking Age hall could be documented.

    Large | Larger
    Icelandic Viking Age Bed
    Title: Icelandic Viking Age Bed
    Creator: Lorettta Decker
    Collection or Fond: B. Wallace Personal Collection
    Notes: Icelandic Viking Age bedstead, reconstructed.

    Large | Larger
    Cooking Scene
    Title: Cooking Scene
    Creator: Viking Heritage Magazine
    Notes: A cooking scene may have looked something like this.

    Large | Larger
    Oseberg ship dating to c. 835
    Title: Oseberg ship dating to c. 835
    Creator: M. Graham Netting
    Archive or Repository: Carnegie Museum of Natural History
    Reference Number: #6142
    Notes: The ship is in the Viking Ship Museum, Oslo, Norway.

    Large | Larger
    Carving on Hylestad church, Setesdal, Norway
    Title: Carving on Hylestad church, Setesdal, Norway
    Creator: Erik Nylén
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Agency
    Collection or Fond: Cultural Resources Archaeology collections, Halifax
    Notes: Wood carving on church door showing the mythical smith Regin forging a sword for the legendary hero Sigurd. Regin is working the sword with his hammer and tong. Sigurd is fanning the forge fire by pumping the bellows.

    Large | Larger
    Ropes from the Oseberg Ship
    Title: Ropes from the Oseberg Ship
    Creator: Universitetets Oldsaksamling
    Archive or Repository: Viking Ship Museum, Oslo, Norway
    Notes: Rope stumps from the Oseberg ship, probably from the rigging, c. 835.

    Large | Larger
    Steering oar, Oseberg ship dating to c. 835
    Title: Steering oar, Oseberg ship dating to c. 835
    Creator: M. Graham Netting
    Archive or Repository: Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, PA
    Reference Number: #6142
    Notes: Steering oar, Oseberg ship dating to c. 835. The ship is in the Viking Ship Museum, Oslo, Norway.

    Large | Larger
    Viking Iron Kettle
    Title: Viking Iron Kettle
    Creator: Erik Nylén
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Agency
    Collection or Fond: Cultural Resources Archaeology collections, Halifax
    Notes: Reproduction of Viking iron kettle and stripod from which it was suspeneded.

    Large | Larger
    Smoothing board and slickstone from Birka, Sweden, 10th century
    Title: Smoothing board and slickstone from Birka, Sweden, 10th century
    Creator: ATA
    Notes: "Ironing" board of whalebone and slick stone of glass. The wet garment was put on the board and rubbed hard with a "stone" of glass until it was smooth. The garment was then left flat until dry. This method was best suited for smaller items like blouses and head-dresses. The same method smoothing was used throughout the 19th century. It makes linen as smooth, shiny and stiff as if it had been starched.

    Large | Larger
    Viking Ship Fleet Carving
    Title: Viking Ship Fleet Carving
    Creator: Unknown
    Archive or Repository: Bergen Museum, Bergen, Oslo
    Notes: Fleet of Viking ships carved on a wooden stick.

    Large | Larger
    Butternut tress along the Miramich river
    Title: Butternut tress along the Miramich river
    Creator: Rob Ferguson
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection

    Large | Larger
    The Miramichi River
    Title: The Miramichi River
    Creator: Rob Ferguson
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection

    Large | Larger
    Kouchibouguac River and Lagoon, Kouchibouguac National Park, NB
    Title: Kouchibouguac River and Lagoon, Kouchibouguac National Park, NB
    Creator: Parks Canada
    Archive or Repository: Kouchibouguac National Park, New Brunswick

    Large | Larger
    Kouchibouguac lagoons behind sandbars
    Title: Kouchibouguac lagoons behind sandbars
    Creator: A. Dufresne
    Archive or Repository: Kouchibouguac National Park, Kouchibouguac, New Brunswick.

    Large | Larger
    The Miramichi river near its mouth
    Title: The Miramichi river near its mouth
    Creator: Rob Ferguson
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection

    Large | Larger
    The Miramichi River at the Point the River Makes an Oxbow
    Title: The Miramichi River at the Point the River Makes an Oxbow
    Creator: Rob Ferguson
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection

    Large | Larger
    Large Hardwood Trees, Eastern NB
    Title: Large Hardwood Trees, Eastern NB
    Creator: Rob Ferguson
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection
    Notes: Eastern New Brunswick has large stands of hardwood trees.

    Large | Larger
    The Miramichi River Island
    Title: The Miramichi River Island
    Creator: Rob Ferguson
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection

    Large | Larger
    Newport Tower, 2004
    Title: Newport Tower, 2004
    Creator: Rob Ferguson
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection

    Large | Larger
    The Carl Emil Larsson letter from 1883 Edward Larsson collection. DAUM, Archives of Dialects and Ethnology, Umeå, Sweden.
    Title: The Carl Emil Larsson letter from 1883 Edward Larsson collection. DAUM, Archives of Dialects and Ethnology, Umeå, Sweden.
    Creator: Tryggve Sköld
    Pages: 5-12
    Notes: Runes used among itinerant apprentices as a form of “secret” script in rural areas in north-central Sweden. The runes are quite different from medieval runes, but a medieval “pentadic” system of dates has been maintained.

    Large | Larger
    Area View Facing Northwest
    Title: Area View Facing Northwest
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: B. Wallace Private Collection
    Notes: Area view facing northwest. In the background Cape Ardoise, Little Sacred Island and Great Sacred Island. The Labrador coast can be distinguished behind them.

    Large | Larger
    Black Duck Pond
    Title: Black Duck Pond
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: B. Wallace Personal Collection
    Notes: Black Duck Pond, the source of Black Duck Brook. Facing northwest

    Large | Larger
    View from Ridge South of Site
    Title: View from Ridge South of Site
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Collection or Fond: B. Wallace Personal Collection

    Large | Larger
    Viking Reenactors in the Replica of Hall A
    Title: Viking Reenactors in the Replica of Hall A
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection

    Large | Larger
    Full-scale Replicas of the Three Buildings in the A-B-C Complex
    Title: Full-scale Replicas of the Three Buildings in the A-B-C Complex
    Creator: A. Corneiller
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada, St. John's

    Large | Larger
    Activities at L'Anse aux Meadows, Net Making
    Title: Activities at L'Anse aux Meadows, Net Making
    Creator: Rob Ferguson
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection
    Notes: Model made by David Caldwell for the Smithsonian Institution. Now in the City Museum, Reykjavik, Iceland.

    Large | Larger
    Mending a Sail
    Title: Mending a Sail
    Creator: Rob Ferguson
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection
    Notes: The sails had to be kept in good condition. Model made by David Caldwell for the Smithsonian Institution. Now in the City Museum, Reykjavik, Iceland.

    Large | Larger
    Cutting up Whale Meat
    Title: Cutting up Whale Meat
    Creator: Rob Ferguson
    Archive or Repository: B. Wallace photo collection
    Notes: Whale meat was on the menu, probably from a beached whale. Model made by David Caldwell for the Smithsonian Institution. Now in the City Museum, Reykjavik, Iceland.

    Large | Larger
    Boat Repair
    Title: Boat Repair
    Creator: Tom Lackey
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology
    Reference Number: 4A-1844A
    Notes: The boats needed to be in good shape. Model by David Caldwell.

    Large | Larger
    Cutting Sod
    Title: Cutting Sod
    Creator: Tom Lackey
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology
    Reference Number: 4A-1837A
    Notes: Model of 11th-century L'Anse aux Meadows showing sod being cut for house construction. About 1100 cubic metres of sod would have been required for the L'Anse aux Meadows buildings. Model by David Caldwell

    Large | Larger
    Boats in Bog
    Title: Boats in Bog
    Creator: Thomas Lackey
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada archaeology photo collection
    Notes: Model by David Coldwell, on exhibit at L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site.

    Large | Larger
    Swedish boat nails from a boat burial at Ultuna, Uppland
    Title: Swedish boat nails from a boat burial at Ultuna, Uppland
    Creator: Statens Historiska Museum
    Archive or Repository: Statents Historiska Museum, Stockholm
    Reference Number: catalogue number 21,264

    Large | Larger
    Viking Period Swedish spindle whorls, exact provenience unknown
    Title: Viking Period Swedish spindle whorls, exact provenience unknown
    Creator: Statens Historiska Museum
    Archive or Repository: Statens Historiska Museum, Stockholm
    Reference Number: catalogue number 6819
    Notes: The object in the upper left corner is a "slick stone" of glass.

    Large | Larger
    Fragmentary Boat Nail
    Title: Fragmentary Boat Nail
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Parks Canada Archaeology
    Reference Number: 4A-141W
    Notes: Fragmentary boat nail. The shank has been cut, and the head is missing, but the rove remains. Parks Canada Archaeology catalogue number 4A76J2-1&2. On exhibit at L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site.

    Large | Larger
    Round church from the late 12th century at Bjernede, Denmark
    Title: Round church from the late 12th century at Bjernede, Denmark
    Creator: Margareta Bekmose
    Archive or Repository: Margareta Bekmose private collection

    Large | Larger
    Inside the Hall A Replica
    Title: Inside the Hall A Replica
    Creator: Loretta Decker
    Archive or Repository: L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site photo collection

    Large | Larger
    A Bed in the Hall A Replica
    Title: A Bed in the Hall A Replica
    Creator: Loretta Decker
    Archive or Repository: L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site photo collection

    Large | Larger
    Spindle Whorl Rendering
    Title: Spindle Whorl Rendering
    Creator: Arius3D

    Large | Larger
    Spindle Whorl
    Title: Spindle Whorl
    Creator: B. Wallace

    Large | Larger
    Finial Rendering
    Title: Finial Rendering
    Creator: Arius 3D

    Large | Larger
    Finial
    Title: Finial
    Creator: B. Wallace

    Large | Larger
    Stone Lamp Rendering
    Title: Stone Lamp Rendering
    Creator: Arius3D

    Large | Larger
    Stone Lamp
    Title: Stone Lamp
    Creator: B. Wallace

    Large | Larger
    Pedal-shaped Finial
    Title: Pedal-shaped Finial
    Creator: Arius3D

    Large | Larger
    Pedal-shaped finial
    Title: Pedal-shaped finial
    Creator: B. Wallace

    Large | Larger
    Guilded Brass Ring Rendering
    Title: Guilded Brass Ring Rendering
    Creator: Arius3D

    Large | Larger
    Gilded Brass Fragment
    Title: Gilded Brass Fragment
    Creator: B. Wallace

    Large | Larger
    Needle Hone Rendering
    Title: Needle Hone Rendering
    Creator: Arius3D

    Large | Larger
    Needle Hone
    Title: Needle Hone
    Creator: B. Wallace

    Large | Larger
    Iron Slag 1 Rendering
    Title: Iron Slag 1 Rendering
    Creator: Arius3D

    Large | Larger
    Iron Slag 2 Rendering
    Title: Iron Slag 2 Rendering
    Creator: Arius3D

    Large | Larger
    Iron Slag
    Title: Iron Slag
    Creator: B. Wallace

    Large | Larger
    Rope Stumps Rendering
    Title: Rope Stumps Rendering
    Creator: Arius3D

    Large | Larger
    Rope Stumps
    Title: Rope Stumps
    Creator: B. Wallace

    Large | Larger
    Butternut Burl Rendering
    Title: Butternut Burl Rendering
    Creator: Arius3D

    Large | Larger
    Butternut Burl
    Title: Butternut Burl
    Creator: B. Wallace

    Large | Larger
    Boat Floor Board Rendering
    Title: Boat Floor Board Rendering
    Creator: Arius3D

    Large | Larger
    Boat Floorboard
    Title: Boat Floorboard
    Creator: B. Wallace

    Large | Larger
    Shaped Board Rendering
    Title: Shaped Board Rendering
    Creator: Arius3D

    Large | Larger
    Shaped Board
    Title: Shaped Board
    Creator: B. Wallace

    Large | Larger
    Barrel Lid Rendering
    Title: Barrel Lid Rendering
    Creator: Arius3D

    Large | Larger
    Barrel Lid
    Title: Barrel Lid
    Creator: B. Wallace

    Large | Larger
    The Braaid, site of a Norse farm on the Isle of Man on a former Celtic site
    Title: The Braaid, site of a Norse farm on the Isle of Man on a former Celtic site
    Creator: Andrew McDonald
    Archive or Repository: Andrew McDonald photo collection

    Large | Larger
    Stone cross in a church, the Kirk Michael on the Isle of Man, showing a mix of Norse and Celtic artistic styles.
    Title: Stone cross in a church, the Kirk Michael on the Isle of Man, showing a mix of Norse and Celtic artistic styles.
    Creator: Andrew McDonald
    Archive or Repository: Andrew McDonald photo colelction

    Large | Larger
    Social structure
    Title: Social structure
    Creator: Vis-à-Vis Graphics, St. John's

    Large | Larger
    Norse artifact distribution at L'Anse aux Meadows
    Title: Norse artifact distribution at L'Anse aux Meadows
    Creator: Vis-à-Vis Graphics, St. John's

    Large | Larger
    Development of Germanic languages
    Title: Development of Germanic languages
    Creator: B. Wallace
    Archive or Repository: Personal collection

    Large | Larger
    Dorset statuette of man in fur clothes
    Title: Dorset statuette of man in fur clothes
    Creator: Hans Lange, Greenland National Museum and Archives
    Archive or Repository: Greenland National Museum and Archives

    Large | Larger
    Dorset statuette of man in fur clothes
    Title: Dorset statuette of man in fur clothes
    Creator: Hans Lange, Greenland National Museum and Archives
    Archive or Repository: Greenland National Museum and Archives

    Large | Larger
    Iron ring inscribed with runes in Forsa, Hälsingland, Sweden.  The inscription is a legal document.
    Title: Iron ring inscribed with runes in Forsa, Hälsingland, Sweden. The inscription is a legal document.
    Creator: Jens Bekmose
    Archive or Repository: Jens Bekmose private collection, courtesy Forsa-Högs parish via Eivor Mähler
    Collection or Fond: The ring was originally in the church. It is now in the parish office, with a copy in the church.

    Large | Larger
    Detail of the Forsa ring.
    Title: Detail of the Forsa ring.
    Creator: Jens Bekmose
    Archive or Repository: Jens Bekmose private collection, courtesy Forsa-Högs parish via Eivor Mähler
    Collection or Fond: The ring is in Forsa-Högs parish office

    Large | Larger
    Runestone from Spelvik, Södermanland, Sweden, stating that 'Grytgarðr, Einriði, the sons, made [this stone] in honour of their brave father. Guðver was west in England; ransom he got, forts in Saxony he attacked like a man'.
    Title: Runestone from Spelvik, Södermanland, Sweden, stating that 'Grytgarðr, Einriði, the sons, made [this stone] in honour of their brave father. Guðver was west in England; ransom he got, forts in Saxony he attacked like a man'.
    Creator: ATA
    Archive or Repository: Antikvarisk-topografiska arkivet, Stockholm
    Collection or Fond: Sö 166 Spelvik, Grinda
    Reference Number: 1108:33

    Large | Larger
    Runestone at Altuna, Sweden, showing the god Thor struggling with the World Serpent.
    Title: Runestone at Altuna, Sweden, showing the god Thor struggling with the World Serpent.
    Creator: ATA
    Archive or Repository: Antikvarisk-topografiska arkivet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Collection or Fond: U 1161, Altuna, Uppland
    Reference Number: A299:125

    Large | Larger
    9th and 10th-century axes from Solna, Sweden
    Title: 9th and 10th-century axes from Solna, Sweden
    Creator: Järnålderskatalogen
    Archive or Repository: Statens Historiska Museum, Stockholm
    Reference Number: 26984 Up

    Large | Larger
    11th-century axe from Sweden
    Title: 11th-century axe from Sweden
    Creator: Statens Historiska Museum
    Archive or Repository: Statens Historiska Museum, Stockholm

    Large | Larger
    Small bronze balance used in trading for weighing precious metals. From Öland, Sweden.
    Title: Small bronze balance used in trading for weighing precious metals. From Öland, Sweden.
    Creator: Statens Historiska Museum
    Archive or Repository: Statens Historiska Museum, Stockholm
    Reference Number: 6819:536

    Large | Larger
    Icelandic sheep
    Title: Icelandic sheep
    Creator: Brian and Cheryl Gallant
    Archive or Repository: Gallant private photo collection

    Large | Larger

Return to parent page