We do not know his name: Klatsassin and the Chilcotin War

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Begbie to the Governor of British Columbia Including Notes Taken by the Court at the Trial of 6 Indians

Notes Taken by the Court at the trial of 6 Indians - Tellot, Klatsassin, Chessus, Piel or Pierre, Tah-pit & Chedekki
Regina v Tah-Pit
Regina v Klatsassin & Piell or Pierre
Regina v Chessus

30 September 1864

Dear Sir

I send you by this post copy of my notes at the trial of the Indian prisoners here. There can be no doubt of the guilty complicity of the 5 prisoners in all the murders, as they must be considered in the eye of the law, and I should think, in a common sense view too, even making large allowances for the ignorance and habits of the prisoners.

As to the very important topic of the surrender of the prisoners, you will find Mr. Cox's statement in the note of Regina v Telloot & others. I received your letter of the 21st inst. this morning, after all the business was concluded - and although the matter had already been to some extent inquired into at the trial, I thought it as well to examine Klatsassin, who had acted as spokesman at the surrender, in private, as to his views on the matter. I only took (of course) the interpreter Baptiste - nobody was present who could understand him but myself; and I mentioned to no person the object of my inquiry. Of course I told Mr. Gaggin, whom I consider to be in charge of the prisoners (though upon this point, and upon others respecting the police altogether in this neighbourhood, and payment of expenses &c some doubt or misapprehension appears to exist). Mr. Gaggin accompanied me to the place of confinement.

Both Mr. Cox and Klatsassin leave me under the impression - in fact they expressly state - that the latter was completely in the dark as to the consequences of his entering Mr. Cox's camp on the 15th August. But it is to be observed that Klatsassin nowhere, neither in court nor today, charges any breach of faith on Mr. Cox. Klatsassin I think suspects Alexis (a rival chief, who had everything to gain, both by receiving an immediate reward, renewing tranquillity, and removing a competitor for influence), of duplicity while he acted as interpreter, as he did pending the negotiations, before the interview, and also (I think) at the first interview with Mr. Cox at all events. Mr. Cox seems to think that blame may perhaps be attributed to another channel either solely, or jointly with Alexis. After Baptiste and Fitzgerald were in camp there is no doubt that everything was thoroughly understood by Klatsassin, except that I think he believed he was to have the honor of an interview with Your Excellency instead of with me. But he was then a prisoner, & the explanation came rather late. In answer to my question, whether he would have come in if he had known that he was thenceforth to be in confinement up to his trial before me, & to be dealt with then for the murder of these men, he gave a decided negative. But when I put the matter to him in the light mentioned by Mr. Cox in his evidence "What then would you have done? You had no flour, you could not hunt, you had no fish, you could not light a fire. Must you not have come in soon, on any terms?" He gave a very frank affirmative reply.

In short, I think that if they were not fairly hunted down on the 15th August, they were on the very verge of being so: and I think they grasped at the idea of a conference; to which perhaps they were encouraged by the gift on the part of Mr. Cox (previous to the 15th Augt) in the last message he sent them, of a couple of pieces of tobacco. This Klatsassin said they brought with them to Mr. Cox's camp on the 15th and smoked it there (probably did so in the interval of silence mentioned by Mr. Cox in his evidence), then, said Klatsassin, we thought ourselves safe. We have all heard of the sacredness of the pipe of peace on the Eastern side among the Indians. I never had any experience on the matter here, in fact there has been no opportunity - this is the first case of anything approaching to a war that has occurred since 1858. Mr. Cox probably as unthinking as I should have been, tells me he never noticed it at all. The other point upon which they were certainly misled, either by their own hopes, or by the promises of some unauthorized agent, was, that they were to be allowed, until my arrival, to camp where they pleased. This was certainly their impression, and very disagreeably disturbed they must have felt, when Mr. Cox refused to allow them to depart, but detained them on that first night, & in fact ever since. Alexis also, I am informed was of the same opinion: when he heard that they wished to camp with him that night, but that Mr. Cox would not let them, "then" said he "Mr. Cox must have two tongues." It is a very annoying circumstance. Klatsassin however never said so to me in reference to Mr. Cox: and I think he would have done so, if he had thought so.

The whole of the prisoners were terribly afraid during the trial. I think they kept back nothing. I think they would tell the exact truth, either to you or to me.

I was particular in inquiring into the name of the individual who as they all assert & I have not the least doubt, truly, was by his rash threat the cause of all this uproar, and of the death of 21 white men & 3 Indians already, & nobody can say how many more by the hand of the executioner of famine in the fall & winter. From today's conversation with Klatsassin I have introduced one or two items of description, "fair", "not an old man", "returned to V. by the steamer" "like Lieut. Stewart." It was not Brewster, nor any of his party. The threat acquired substance and force from the circumstance that the same threat is said to have been made to them previous to the small pox of /62-/63 when half their numbers (on a moderate computation) perished.

Baptiste and Fitgerald make famous interpreters. The latter is of course unnecessary to those who speak French.

These assizes have only decided the fate (as far as I am concerned) of 5 of the 8 prisoners. Chidekki was only tried on one indictment - was not recognized by any witness. It is said Peterson can swear to him. I believe he goes below for trial at New Westminster. You can inquire into the matter from him there, & respite the 5 here in the meantime, or if you think more proper, the 5 here or Klatsassin, who conducted the negotiations can be sent down to you with Baptiste & Ogilvy. That will at all events be cheaper than having them sent down to N.W. for trial, as the witnesses &c. will not have to go.

The remaining two prisoners, Tnananski and his son Cheloot I intimated might be set at large. They have been at large for the last 10 days. There is no specific charge against them, nothing at all except Klatsassin's opening at his first interview with Mr. Cox, which, I need not say, is no legal evidence against them whatever. Moreover all the prisoners, who I believe speak truth as in the presence of a higher power, exonerate them from all participation in anything we could well call a murder, in any Chilcotin construction of the word. They were neither at Brewster's camp, nor Manning's, nor Macdonald's - they are stated to have been present at the quasi skirmish where Maclean lost his life, where, says Mr. Cox, "we fired at them, & they fired on us," and there is not the least evidence that either of them fired the fatal shot there or fired at all.

As to the latter part of your letter about local excitement where you quote from Mr. Cardwell* I think that is best answered by the fact that all these 8 prisoners have been brought a long distance without any attempt at mob law, or even an insult. Three of them were virtually acquitted on a count where I certainly thought the evidence very slight, notwithstanding the moral certitude that we all had of their actual complicity. Two of them are at large on parol in the streets of the town quite unmolested. All the 5 convicts have confessed their guilt of capital offences generally & of the offences for which they have been convicted in particular.

The conviction of Telloot would not be followed, in England, by execution: at least where others suffered capitally for the same offence. Piell is young, very mild-looking, much under the influence of Klatsassin. But he shot Macdonald's horse, riding away. Klatsassin is the finest savage I have met with yet, I think. But I believe also he has fired more shots than any of them. It seems horrible to hang 5 men at once, especially under the circumstances of the capitulation. Yet the blood of 21 whites calls for retribution. And these fellows are cruel, murdering pirates, taking life & making slaves in the same spirit as you or I would go out after partridges or rabbit shooting. "Squint Eye's" tribe is nearly annihilated by them. Klatsassin shoots Macdonald as he lies on the ground, distributes his horses, and carries of his servant "Tom" as a slave.

I do not envy you your task of coming to a decision.

Believe me yours truly
Matt. B. Begbie

* I fear Mr. Cardwell perhaps sometimes reads Colonial newspapers.

I leave this tomorrow a.m. My next addresses are, Lilloet till 12th oct, Lytton till 21st oct.

Begbie to the Colonial Secretary of British Columbia

Quesnellemouth, 28 Sept. 1864.

Notes taken by the Court at the trial of 6 Indians, Telloot, Klatsassin, Chessus, Piell or Pierre, Tah-pit & Chedekki.

First Indictment, Regina against Telloot as principal in wounding Philip Buckley with intent to murder, & against Klatsassin, Chessus, Piell, Tah-pit & Chedekki on one count as aiding & abetting, & on a 2d count as inciting &c. ie accessories before the fact.

Mr. H.P. Walker conducted the prosecution.

Mr. Barnston watched the case & defended the prisoners: without previous instructions, however, taking up the case at the request of the Court.

Philip Buckley sworn. Last April I was engaged by Mr. Waddington on the Bute Inlet trail. There were 17 of us altogether at the upper end & 2 packers below, near the sea. There was 1 man at the ferry: 9 miles up there were 12 of us at work on the trail, 3 men & Brewster 2 miles further on. On the 29 April last there were 14 or 15 Indians about - Chilcotins, "George" & "Squint Eye" were there also. On the morning of the 30th April I was awakened by 2 Indians coming into my tent - one struck me on the head with the butt end of a musket. I jumped out of the mouth of the tent and there was attacked & stabbed by 2 of them, was cut in 4 places, got into the brush - I have 5 marks on my person (shewed are rather severe-looking - scar on left back-ribs) Telloot was the first man who attacked me. He attacked me afterwards also (recognized him). Did not see any attack on the other man (Hoffman) - got away into the brush as fast as I could. I never saw him move. I called to him, but could not turn back I thought. Could not see what was going on in the other part of the camp but I heard 2 shots fired there. Never saw any of my Comrades, nor fell in with any Indian until I reached the ferry, then the 2 packers came up with 8 Indians. I lay in the brush all that day (30 April) until evening - about sunset I started up the river, found that the Indians had moved up also - I wanted to get to where Brewster was (not knowing he was dead. M.B.B.) Lay there that night. Next morning started for the ferry, which I reached about 3 PM, found 2 other men there. Never saw any Indian on the way, heard them firing 8 or 10 rounds. The ground is very rough. The 2 men were Peterson & Moseley. We found nothing in the house but a little bacon. It had previously been full of provisions, could see no sign of any scuffle there. The ferryman Smith was not there. I have never seen him since. The packers were about 40 miles off, ie the distance from our camp to the mouth of the river.

When I reached the mouth I saw for the first time "Tennas George" who had been with Brewster. The first I saw was "Squint Eye" about 15 miles up the river - he had come up in a canoe for me & Peterson.

I recognize 3 of the prisoners as having been with our party before the murder - Telloot, Klatsassin, & Chedekki. I had seen them all there 3 nights before the murder. They camped only 20 or 30 feet from us. They had some arms, some muskets. They gave no sign of being bad or hostile to us.

Cross examined by Mr. Barnston. Peterson & Moseley are both below, both alive. The reason I went up river after the attack was because I thought Brewster would be safe and so I went to him for help, for I thought I never could get down to the ferry alone. I found the Indians camped in about 3/4 mile. The night of the 30th I slept on the hill, the next morning I left & went down river. I know Telloot perfectly well. He was with us pretty nearly as long as the white men engaged with us in the road. The first blow he struck was with the butt of his musket over the right eye.

Telloot & Chedekki were at work for us, packing, up to the night before the attack. All the others I believe had been employed in the same way, but I will not swear to any but the 3 I have named (Telloot Chedekki & Klatsassin). Never heard any complaint of non payment of wages, they seemed glad to see us when we came in the spring.

"George" sworn. (Fitzgerald & Baptiste sworn as (Indian) interpreters) I was Brewster's cook. I had risen in the morning, made tea for the 4 men. After breakfasting 3 men went to work with axes - Brewster went ahead to mark the way - (blaze the line) - he said he would be back at noon. I was washing up the plates &c. when some Indians came up, 6 in all, 4 with muskets - 2 without muskets. One of the 6 (a slave) said the white men would be all killed and I also. I said why will you kill me? He replied I don't know - go home to your own country. The indians came from down the river. Chessus (the prisoner) is the only one of those 6 Indians who is now present. I then ran away down the trail. Before reaching the other camp (Buckley's camp, 1st witness. M.B.B.) I met all the other prisoners coming up the trail. I saw that camp on my way down - there were 4 dead bodies in it - 2 in one tent, one in each of two other tents. I knew Jim Clark [qu. witness meant, Jim (ie James Gaudet french Canadian) and Clark (ie John Clark) both of whom it appeared subsequently were in Brewster's camp & murdered there - inquest held on them by Mr. Brew. M.B.B.] Before I ran from Brewster's camp, I heard some shots, not far off, saw Jim running limping down the hill - I then ran away. Chessus had a gun when I saw him come up to Brewster's camp. The bodies at the lower camp were new killed but cold - knew the whole of the prisoners before, they had lived all last winter in my country. When I came to the ferry I found 2 white men there.

Cross examined by Mr. Barnston.

I met the 4 prisoners (other than Chessus) about 1 mile below Brewster's camp - I knew all the 6 men. Did not see any blood on them. I belong to the Homalco tribe. The Indians always carry muskets when on a journey.

But then most of them were engaged in packing M.B.B.

Re examined. Chessus had his face blacked [sign of enmity M.B.B.]

Inuqa-Jem alias Squint Eye sworn [Tenas George occasionally acted as assistant interpreter, not sworn as interpreter. M.B.B.]

I worked for Brewster - he told me to go to the ferry & stay 5 days there. There was no one killed at the Ferry when I got down [But see a few lines further, M.B.B.] I saw Piell Chessus & Klatsassin there. It was not yet noon. Chessus said "Our master (Klatsassin) has killed a white man at the ferry. [This I declined to take as evidence, but witness then proceeded to say M.B.B.] Klatsassin & Piell said the same thing. That was all they said. I asked why they had killed the whites. They made no answer & I went down the river. When I came to the ferry I whistled in the usual way, but received no answer. I went lower down & swam the river. I know all the prisoners well, they passed the winter in my country. At the ferry I saw the scow & skiff but no canoe - they were on the far side of the river. I swam the river because I wanted to get to my country in haste - I feared the Chilcotins would be killing my own tribe.

[This witness was not cross examined?]

Mr. Commissioner Cox sworn.

I was in charge of the expedition to whom these prisoners surrendered. A message had come in from Klatsassin to Mr. Brew's camp and mine. It was to the effect that if we would not follow them to the mountains any more they would come & give themselves up to us, if we followed them they would kill us. I answered that we should do just as we thought fit that I should be glad to see them if they would come in, but if not, that I would follow them up & kill man woman & children. Afterwards they sent money as a test of their good faith. Klatsassin said that he had come to sell his body to save his wives and children. I said they must come in otherwise I would keep on until the snow. I promised them that I would not hurt them in my camp, that I had not however to kill them - that I would hand them over to the big chief [meaning me - I think the Indians believed it to be His Excellency, whose photograph was shewn them at this time, but not by Mr. Cox. M.B.B.]

Two days afterwards they came in, in a row & sat down. I said nothing to them & waited some time. At length Alexis said something to Klatsassin who addressing me said We are seven murderers who are here to give ourselves up & I am another. [They dared not shoot or light a fire for fear of pursuit] They thought best to give themselves up in order to save the lives of their wives & children. I made them thoroughly understand that they were prisoners. They were put into an enclosure. When they were legally examined on the 26th Sept. they were cautioned in the statutory form and made statements, Klatsassin to the effect "There is no murderer here, but we assisted" Telloot said he had lived with the whites & liked them, and was sorry when they were murdered &c. These 8 however [who surrendered 15th augt. M.B.B.] were all included in making up the number of 21 Indians who were engaged in the murder. There was no inducement whatever to the Indians to come in - it was entirely voluntary on their part.

Mr. Walker summed up. Mr. Barnston addressed the jury for defence, prosecution waived any reply.

Charged the jury that the evidence against Telloot on the 1st count rested only on one witness, but he was very distinct & clear, and on the general evidence of Telloot having been on the spot immediately before & immediately after the attack, & engaged in the same sort of violence. That they were to confine their attention to the case of Buckley which was the only one mentioned in the indictment, and that the evidence adduced before them was very weak as connecting the other prisoners with any particular assault on him - at the same time that if 5 men attack in concert, and any of the attacked party is killed that no doubt is murder in each of the 5 assailants. But here Buckley not murdered, & the indictment was only for assault with intent.

Jury locked up at 5 P.M. to 5.30 P.M.

Shortly after, they announced to me that they had agreed to a verdict as to 2 of the prisoners but could not agree as to the other 3. I read part of the evidence over to them & they were again locked up for upwards of 3 hours, when they being still of the same mind, at a little past nine I received their verdict:

Telloot guilty 1st count
Klatsassin " 2d count
Piell, Chessus,
Chedekki - jury disagreed (they stated to me they were 11 to 1, but discharged without a verdict.

This is in England a capital offence, but power is given to the judge to order the sentence to be recorded only, & abstain from pronouncing it. And this power, probably, would be certainly acted on, in England. However, knowing that all these proceedings are more subject to revision here than at home, I pronounced the capital sentence on both prisoners, next day, in the usual form. Klatsassin had in the mean time been convicted on another charge, the murder of Macdonald.

All the prisoners acknowledged that they had assisted, & many of them [two words illegible] of these murders.

Quesnellemouth 29 Sept. 1864

Regina v Tah-pit,
murder of William Manning.

Nancy an Indian woman sworn (Baptiste & Fitzgerald interpreters.) I knew Manning. I will tell the same story over again. Manning was working outside the house. Two Indian women came & told me the Indians were coming to kill him & advised me to leave for fear of being hurt. Manning asked me why the 2 women were speaking. I told him they said the Indians had killed all the whites at Homalco & would come and kill him. He said I don't believe the Chilcotins will hurt me. I have known them long they like me & will give me the hand. I said "These are not Chilcotins but from a distance. I don't know them I am afraid & wish to go." We went into the house & had dinner. Afterwards Manning went out. An old woman came & said perhaps they will kill you also, you had better go. Manning said You tell me this because you wish to leave me. I said no you have plenty of flour &c. which the savages will take, you take what money you have & go to Alexis. Another woman Ah-tit came & said "Don't stop, come with me. I went with her about 50 yards, heard a shot, looked round & saw Manning lying on the ground. Tahpit (the prisoner) had previously been a long time on this ground [It appeared to have been formerly a constant camping place of Tahpit & his tribe, but Manning had driven them off, & taken possession of the spring. M.B.B.] I had seen him there the same day but had not said anything. I saw him kill Manning. It was a little above the house, outside. I returned into the house after the murder to fetch my blankets but the Indians had taken everything. I saw & examined the body twice. It was afterwards dragged to the water by my brother Liscullum. The house was full of Indians - I don't know how many. They were from Punstseen & Tatla Lake. At Tatla there is not I think any chief. There were no Homalco Indians there.

The prisoner Tahpit being asked if he had any question to ask, said, "These are lies. Some of the words of this woman are true and some are not true" (He then proceeded to give a statement clearly admitting his guilt, but laying the whole blame on Annichim, who he said was there. However, I understood his statement before it got translated into English, & stopped it before it got to the jury. M.B.B.)

Il-se-dant-nell another Indian woman, sworn. Was at Manning's house the day of the murder. Saw the prisoner there. Two Indians went from the lodge to kill Manning. I & 2 other women went out to get wood. The men were Annichim and Tahpit. I heard Tahpit say "all the Indians urge me to kill Manning, & Annichim does so too." That was all I heard. They both had guns. I heard a shot fired presently. Did not see who fired. Both the men (prisoner & Annichim) went straight towards Manning's house. I saw Manning's body - It was quite dead. There were many Indians there. Prisoner Tahpit was among them.

The prisoner being asked if he had any questions to ask, merely said "The words of this woman are true."

Wm. H. Fitzgerald (the interpreter) sworn as a witness. I accompanied Mr. Cox to Punstseen. Went to where Manning's house formerly stood. We arrived on the 13 June last. Previously to leaving Alexandria two Indians had told me where to find the body. It was hid in a stream 50 yards from the house. There was a bullet in the body, passing from the right breast to the left shoulder blade. I could not say how long it had been dead - the water was very cold, & the body covered with roots so as to keep off all sun. Kyse identified the body. It had been dead clearly more than a day. We held an inquest on it & buried it.

Mr. Commissioner Cox, sworn - repeated the statement previously made, to the same effect.

The jury immediately returned a verdict of [[underline]]Guilty[[/]].

The origin of this may most probably be traced to the land quarrel, at least as far as involving Tahpit in the murder.

Annichim was loudly inculpated by the prisoner as the cause of his undoing, in repeated exclamations.

29 Sept. 1864.

Regina v Klatsassin & Piell or Pierre
Murder of Alexander Macdonald.

Mr. Walker for the prosecution.

"Tom" an Indian sworn. I am of Alexis' tribe. I was employed by Macdonald to look after his horses in the packtrain. I commenced at Punstseen - we went towards the Coast. After the Indians had killed the whites at Homalco they threatened to kill all. After some distance we met Annichim who told me that all the whites on the road had been killed, & that those men (who had killed Waddington's party) were on their way to Punstseen to kill Manning, that he (Ann.) prevented them from so doing, and that Manning was at Punstseen all safe. I saw Macdonald killed. The train was turned towards Bella Coola. The Indians were in ambush on each side of the trail. At the first fire Macdonald was wounded [Klatsassin then killed him]. [Achin?] then killed Higgins dead the first fire.

Then all the footmen were killed & the horsemen ran. Piell then fired and killed Macdonald's horse - he ran a short distance on foot. Ya-hoot-la fired & wounded him, he fell on his back with a pistol in his hand. Tshin-kan-ten céah came up to finish him but Macdonald shot him. Then Klatsassin fired & broke both his arms. I-shen then fired & killed him dead. That was the last shot. After that the Savages collected all the horses from the woods. They could not find them all for Annichim's party had hidden the horses in the wood. All that Klatsassin's party found were divided among the Indians equally. I saw Macdonald after he was dead. The Indians did nothing to the body. Five white men escaped. Klatsassin then took me with him. The attack took place a little on this side of Na coon tloon. I don't know whether Manning was then dead or not.

Leslie Jones sworn. I was attached to Mr. Brew's party. Between Nacoontloon & Tatla we found the bodies of 3 white men, a hundred yards or so apart. They were much decomposed and hardly recognizable. We found no papers. The bodies had clothing on them. From the direction in which some dead horses were lying we judged them to have been going towards the sea. We did not examine them closely. Enough to ascertain the cause of death. The bodies were much decomposed.

Mr. Commissioner Cox repeated a statement to the same effect as before.

Philip Buckley proved the finding of the 3 bodies, & said that one of them was Macdonald's.

The jury immediately returned a verdict of guilty.

Piell afterwards on being brought up for sentence, said that it was true he had fired at Macdonald, but that he had missed him & only killed his horse. On being answered that had it not been for that, McD. would probably have escaped, he eagerly exclaimed to us "not he!"

Piell however is much the youngest of the party, and may be considered to have been entirely under the influence of Klatsassin.

Klatsassin avowed his participation in all the murders, generally, on being brought up for sentence.

Regina v Chessus
Murder of James Clark

[This indictment arose on a confusion of what had fallen from the witness George in Regina v Telloot and others. I allowed the name to be changed to James Gaudet alias Jim as I did not think the prisoner's defence was or could be thereby prejudiced & in fact the evidence would probably have supported the charge of murdering both James Gaudet and John Clark. M.B.B.]

George's evidence was very much more pointed, on closer examn. than on the previous day: "I was near the fire when I heard the shots, there were 4 shots - saw no white man after the firing except Jim who ran limping down the hill. Cannot say who in particular fired at Jim. Clark had a gun but I know it was not loaded that morning. The 3 whites were close to camp, at work. I could not see them the brush was too high, but I could see their axes moving. The 4 shots came all in a volley [two illegible words] Of the 6 Indians, 4 had guns. Chessus had a gun, & had his face blacked.

Mr. Walker for the prosecution.

The evidence was nearly a recapitulation of that given in the case of Regina v Telloot.

Philip Buckley sworn.

Tenas George sworn. *(See ante.)

Leslie Jones sworn. Went up Bute Inlet with Brew's Party. [Described the scene at Buckley's camp, 9 miles from ferry] About 4 miles further up found 3 bodies, quite recognizable. They were those of Brewster, Clark & Gaudet (alias Jim). We held an inquest & buried them. I was foreman.

Verdict, Guilty.

All the prisoners being brought into Court, I told them, that having seen them and examined the complaints about them, I had become convinced that they had each of them killed or been engaged in killing white men. I asked them what their law was against murderers? They replied death. I said our law just the same. That they were then guilty of death. Why should it not be pronounced? Whereupon Telloot said he was an old man, too old to do any harm. Quotanski would have killed me if I had not taken some share. I took a small hatchet & gave two blows with it.

Klatsassin. I have killed whites. I was induced to do so by Tyorkell, who gave me a gun to do so [[strike]]A white man took all our names down in a book last spring & told us we should all die, whose names were there of small pox. Tyorkell told us this would certainly happen unless we killed every white man. It was at Homalco. The white man who said this came in the steamer, he is not killed - he returned in the steamer to Victoria - he is not old - he has fair hair, like Lieut. Stewart whom we saw in Mr. Cox's camp. Yahootla & his brother were bad Indians irritating the white men by their thefts.

Five Indians were present when the white man on the steamer took down the names. That was the reason of the outbreak.

Piell said he was present at the Homalco camp murder, but did nothing. At Macdonald he had indeed fired, but he missed him & only killed his horse.

Tahpit said Anachim was always urging him to kill a white man, never had the idea till Anachim came. At last the day he came, I took my gun & went & shot Manning. After I had done so I was very sorry & went & sat down. Other Indians came & plundered the house. It is the first time I have killed a man, I never killed even an Indian.

Chessus. The ferryman was not killed by me. As to Jim I admit that I fired one of the 4 shots, and the men were all killed. I don't know whether I killed any of them.

I sentenced all these 5 to be hung.

Source: BCA, Colonial Correspondence, GR-1372, F142f/16, Mflm B1308, Matthew Baillie Begbie, Begbie to the Governor of British Columbia Including Notes Taken by the Court at the Trial of 6 Indians, September 30, 1864.

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